Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
A strong relationship has been established between negative events and circumstances during childhood and the development of drug use and drug-related problems in adolescence and young adulthood. Individuals who report parental strife or separation as a child, physical and sexual abuse, parental drug abuse and depression, frequent family geographic relocation, and failure in school, also tend to report a high rate of experimentation with drugs, abusive consumption, and a range of psychological problems associated with heavy drug use.
Life-events theorists assume that negative events and chronic strains operate as “environmental stressors” that have the potential to elevate levels of anxiety and depression (i.e., negative effect). Individuals high in negative affect are, in turn, hypothesized to use drugs (particularly alcohol) as a means of self-medicating their strong social fears and depressive symptoms.
Current applications of the negative affect model may be problematic in situations where social anxiety, depression, and substance abuse are operationalized as DSM-diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Evidence has confirmed that, as defined by DSM, social phobia is antecedent to both major depression and substance dependence.
Adams, Barbara N., R.N., M.S., Carol A. Brownstein, M.S.W., Ivy M. Rennalls, R.N.,
M.P.H., and Madeline H. Schmitt, R.N., M.S. “The Pregnant Adolescent- A
Group Approach.” Adolescence. 11 (1976): 467-483.
DeWit, David J., Ph.D., Kathryn MacDonald, M.D., and David R. Offord, M.D.
“Childhood Stress and Symptoms of Drug Dependence in Adolescence and
Early Adulthood: Social Phobia as a Mediator.” American Journal of
Orthopsychiatry. 69 (1999): 61-70.
- Youth And Values Essay, Research Paper BIBLIOYouth and Values In an attempt to challenge societal values, youth ... leaves the young adult humiliated and angry at society. A youth culture may ... for the young adult, but the Soviet youth often find themselves ...
- Rap And Violence Essay, Research Paper _______________________________ _______________________________ Since the late ... children’s exposure to music with adult content,” but really can’t do ... a lot for the music industry and youth in general. Before rap all ...
- Romeo And Juliet Essay, Research Paper Four hundred years ago, William ... the everyday lives of today’s youth and for this reason, young love ... points to the contrasts between youth and age that are even apparent ... with no problem. If an adult plays, it will be a ...
- Transformation Into Adulthood Essay, Research Paper Transformation Into Adulthood In William Faulkner?s story, ?Barn ... into an adult while dealing with the many crude actions and ways ... of Abner, his father. We see Sarty as a puzzled youth ...
- Gun Control And Schools Essay, Research Paper you recently picked up a ... old student as an adult? Also what causes these ... periods and background checks have reduced crime or youth violence. ... should be tried as an adult. Another solution proponents proposed ...