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55


C ontents

Introduction 3

Chapter I Theoretical assumptions of stylistics

1.1. Definition of style in works of different linguists 5

1.2. The various approaches to the study of stylistics 7

1.2.1. Linguistic stylistics

1.2.2. Literary stylistics

1.2.3. Functional stylistics 22

1.3. Problem of image-creation in fiction texts

Conclusion on chapter 1 33

Chapter II Stylistic analysis

2.1. The revelation of the ways of image-creation in fiction texts

2.1.1. The stylistic analysis of “The Selfish Giant” by Oscar Wilde

2.1.2. Stylistic analysis of “Louise” by William Somerset Maugham 49

2.2.

Conclusion on chapter 2 53

General conclusion 54

Bibliography 55

Appendix 59

Introduction

Stylistics is the study of varieties of language whose properties position that language in context, and tries to establish principles capable of accounting for the particular choices made by individuals and social groups in their use of language. A variety, in this sense, is a situationally distinctive use of language. For example, the language of advertising, politics, religion, individual authors, etc., or the language of a period in time, all are used distinctively and belong in a particular situation. In other words, they all have ‘place’ or are said to use a particular 'style'.

Stylistics is a branch of linguistics, which deals with the study of varieties of language, its properties, principles behind choice, dialogue, accent, length, and register. Stylistics also attempts to establish principles capable of explaining the particular choices made by individuals and social groups in their use of language, such as socialisation, the production and reception of meaning, critical discourse analysis and literary criticism.

The diploma paper consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusion and the list of references. The introduction outlines the aim, the tasks, the topicality and the value of the present work. The chapter I presents the theoretical part, where the assumptions of stylistics, its sources and classification are presented. The chapter II is the practical part of our investigation. It includes the stylistic analyses of fiction texts and their interpretation. The conclusion describes the results of the investigation, presented in the previous parts of the work.

The aim of this work is to describe and to classify the ways of image-creation in fiction texts.

The tasks, set before the investigation, are the following:

- to consider the structure of stylistics, its main branches and ways of their development;

- to describe the theoretical approaches to the study of stylistics through the attentive analysis of the scientific literature, devoted to the stylistics;

- to study the methods of the stylistic analysis, its forms and elements;

- to analyze literary fiction texts and to define various ways of image-creation, used by the authors;

- to describe and classify the methods of image-creation, defined in the fiction texts under analysis.

Though the ways and methods of image-creation are widely-studied in the modern linguistic science, there are always new ways appear. The list of image-creation methods is constantly changing, and fixation and description of the new ones makes the topicality of the work.

The topicality of the work is predetermined by the fact that a lot of questions connected with understandings of sense of different texts.

The object of our research is the means of image-creation literature. The subject of this graduation paper the realization of methods of image creation in the English literature.

The following tasks are to be solved in this paper:

- to reveal and describe methods of image creation in the English literature

- to define what role played by stylistic at creation of texts

The theoretical value of the given work is that the materials, investigation and conclusion represented in it enter into scientific use the helpful information about stylistic devises.

The practical value of the research is that its results may be used in lectures and practical courses English language, general linguistics, in special courses.

Chapter I Theoretical assumptions of stylistics

1.1. Definition of style in works of different linguists

The word style is derived from the Latin word `stylos` which meant a short stick sharp at one end and flat at the other used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets. Now the word `style` is used in so many senses that it has become a breeding ground for ambiguity. The word is applied to the teaching of how to write a composition; it is also used to reveal the correspondence between thought and expression; it frequently denotes an individual manner of making use of language; it sometimes refers to more general, abstract notions thus inevitably becoming vague and obscure, as, for example, “Style is the man himself” (Buffon), “Style is depth” (Derbyshire); “Style is deviations” (Enkvist); “Style is choice” and the like. All these ideas directly or indirectly bear on issues in stylistics. Some of them become very useful by revealing the springs which make our utterance emphatic, effective and goal-directed. It will therefore not come amiss to quote certain interesting observations regarding style made by different writers from different angles. Some of these observations are dressed up as epigrams or sententious maxims like the ones quoted above [Bagget 2005, 243].

Style is a quality of language which communicates precisely emotions or thoughts, or a system of emotions or thoughts, peculiar to the author”. (J Middleton Murry) “… a true idiosyncrasy of style is the result of an author’s success in compelling language to conform to his mode of experience”. (J. Middleton Murry). “Style is a contextually restricted linguistic variation”. (Enkvist). “Style is a selection of non-distinctive features of language”. (L. Bloomfield). “Style is simple synonymous with form or expression and hence a superfluous term”. (Benedetto Croce)[ Riffaterre 1964, 316]. “Style is essentially a citational process, a body of formulae, a memory (almost in the cybernetic sense of the word). A cultural and not an expressive inheritance”. (Roland Barthes) [Chatman 1967,30]. Some linguists consider that the word `style` and the subject of linguistic stylistics is confined to the study of the effects of the message, i.e. its impact on the reader. Thus Michael Riffaterre writes that “Stylistics will be linguistics of the effects of the message, of the output of the act of communication, of its attention –compelling function”. This point of view has clearly been reached under the influence of recent developments in the general theory of information. Language being one of the means of communication or, to be exact, the most important mans of communication, is regarded in the above quotation from a pragmatic point of view.

Stylistics in that case is regarded as a language science which deals with the results of the act of communication. To a very considerable degree this is true. Stylistic must take into consideration the “output of the act of communication”. But stylistics must also investigate the ontological, i.e. natural, inherent, and functional peculiarities of the means of communication. Which may ensure the effect sought? Archibald A. Hill states that “A current definition of style and stylistics is that structures, sequences, and patterns which extend, or may extend, beyond the boundaries of individual sentences define style, and that the study of them is stylistics ”The truth of this approach to style and stylistics lies in the fact that the author concentrates on such phenomena in language as present a system, in other words, on facts which are not confined to individual choices and patterns of choices (emphasis added) among linguistic possibilities.” [ Archibald 1978,54] This definition indirectly deals with the idiosyncrasies peculiar to a given writer. Somehow it fails to embrace such phenomena in text structure where the `individual` is reduced to the minimum or even done away with entirely (giving preferences to non-individualistic forms in using language means). However, this definition is acceptable when applied to the ways men-of-letters use language when they seek to make it conform to their immediate aims and support. A somewhat broader view of style is expressed by Werner winter who maintains that “A style may be said to be characterized by a pattern of recurrent selections from the inventory of optional features of a language. Various types of selection can be found; complete exclusion of an optional element, obligatory inclusion of a feature optional else where, varying degrees of inclusion of a specific variant without complete elimination of competing features.” [Werner 1967,324].

The idea of taking various types of selection as criteria for distinguishing styles seems to be a sound one. It places the whole problem on a solid foundation of objective criteria, namely, the interdependence of optional and obligatory features. There is no point in quoting other definitions of style. They are too many and heterogeneous to fall under one more or less satisfactory unified notion. Undoubtedly all these diversities in the understanding of the word `style` stem from its ambiguity. But still all these various definitions leave an impression that by and large they all have something in common. All of them point to some integral significance, namely that style is a set of characteristics by which we distinguish one author from another or members of one subclass from members of the same general class.What are these sets of characteristics typical of a writer or of a subclass of the literary language will be seen in the analysis of the language means of a given writer and of the subclasses of the general literary standard.

1.2. The various approaches to the study of stylistics

Stylistics refers to stylistic study specially. The aim of the stylistic study is to interpret the literary meaning and aesthetic effect of literature texts linguistically. There are many definitions on the stylistics. N. Leech and R. Short defined that “Compared with many other studies, literary stylistics is a new science, a linguistic approach towards literature works. It applies theories of modern linguistics to the study of literature and attempts to relate the critic’s concern with aesthetic appreciation and the readers’ intuition with the linguist’s concern with linguistic description”. A. Thornborrow defined that “By far the most common kind of material studied by stylistics is literature.The stylistics we are discussing here is modern stylistics, a discipline that applies concepts and techniques of modern linguistics to the study of styles of language use. It has two subdivisions: general stylistics and literary stylistics, with the latter concentrating solely on unique features of various literary works, and the former on the general features of various types of language use.” That is to say, stylistics goes beyond the linguistic description of the literature texts; its final purpose is to relate literary effects to relevant linguistic causes. It is the most explored section in the stylistic domain.

Stylistics, sometimes called lingvo-stylistics, is a branch of general linguistics. It has now been more or less definitely outlined. It deals mainly with two interdependent tasks:

a) the investigation of the inventory of special language media which by their ontological features secure the desirable effect of the utterance and

b) certain types of texts (discourse) which due to the choice and arrangement of language means are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication.

The two objectives of stylistics are clearly discernible as two separate fields of investigation. The inventory of special language media can be analyzed and their ontological features revealed if presented in a system in which the co-relation between the media becomes evident.

The types of texts can be analyzed if their linguistic components are presented in their interaction, thus revealing the unbreakable unity and transparency of constructions of a given type. The types of texts that are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication are called functional styles of language (FS); the special media of language which secure the desirable effect of the utterance are called stylistic devices (SD) and expressive means (EM).

The first field of investigation, i.e. SDs and EMs, necessarily touches upon such general language problems as the aesthetic function of lan­guage, synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea, emotional colouring in language, the interrelation between language and thought, the individual manner of an author in making use of language and a number of other issues.

The second field, i.e. functional styles, cannot avoid discussion of such most general linguistic issues as oral and written varieties of language, the notion of the literary (standard) language, the constituents of texts larger than the sentence, the generative aspect of literary texts, and some others.

In dealing with the objectives of stylistics, certain pronouncements of adjacent disciplines such as theory of information, literature, psychology, logic and to some extent statistics must be touched upon. This is indispensable; for nowadays no science is entirely isolated from other domains of human knowledge; and linguistics, particularly its branch stylistics, cannot avoid references to the above mentioned disciplines because it is confronted with certain overlapping issues.

The branching off of stylistics in language science was indirectly the result of a long-established tendency of grammarians to confine their investigations to sentences, clauses and word-combinations which are "well-formed", to use a dubious term, neglecting anything that did not fall under the recognized and received standards. This tendency became particularly strong in what is called descriptive linguistics. The generative grammars, which appeared as a reaction against descriptive linguistics, have confirmed that the task of any grammar is to limit the scope of investigation of language data to sentences which are con­sidered well-formed. Everything that fails to meet this requirement should be excluded from linguistics.

But language studies cannot avoid subjecting to observation any language data whatever, so where grammar refuses to tread stylistics steps in. Stylistics has acquired its own status with its own inventory of tools (SDs and EMs), with its own object of investigation and with its own methods of research.

The stylistics of a highly developed language like English or Rus­sian has brought into the science of language a separate body of media, thus widening the range of observation of phenomena in language. The significance of this branch of linguistics can hardly be over-estimated. A number of events in the development of stylistics must be mentioned here as landmarks.A great number of monographs, textbooks, articles, and dissertation papers are now at the disposal of a scholar in stylistics. The stream of information grows larger every month. Two American journals appear regularly, which may keep the student informed as to trends in the theory of stylistics. They are Style issued at the Arkansas University (U.S.A.) and Language and Style published in Southern Illinois University (U.S.A.).

It is in view of the ever-growing significance of the exploration of language potentialities that so much attention is paid in lingvo-stylistics to the analysis of expressive means (EMs) and stylistic devices (SDs), to their nature and functions, to their classification and to possible interpretations of additional meanings they may carry in a message as well as their aesthetic value.

In order to ascertain the borders of stylistics it is necessary to go at some length into the question of what is style.

The word stуle is derived from the Latin word 'stylus' which meant a short stick sharp at one end and flat at the other used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets.

Now the word 'style is used in so many senses that it has become a breeding ground for ambiguity. The word is applied to the teaching of how to write a composition (see below); it is also used to reveal the correspondence between thought and expression; it frequently denotes an individual manner of making use of language; it sometimes refers to more general, abstract notions thus inevitably becoming vague and obscure, as, for example, "Style is the man himself" (Buffon), "Style is depth" (Derbyshire);* "Style is deviations" (Enkvist); "Style is choice", and the like.

All these ideas directly or indirectly bear on issues in stylistics. Some of them become very useful by revealing the springs which make our utterances emphatic, effective and goal-directed. It will therefore not come amiss to quote certain interesting observations regarding style made by different writers from different angles. Some of these ob­servations are dressed up as epigrams or sententious maxims like the ones quoted above. Here are some more of them.

"Style is a quality of language which communicates precisely emo­tions or thoughts, or a system of emotions or thoughts, peculiar to the author." (J. Middleton Murry).

Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which examines, analyses and classifies various phenomena of the vocabulary, grammar and phonetics from the point of view of their stylistic function. In other words it studies principles and effects of a choice and use of phonetic, lexical, grammatical language means for transmission of thought, attitudes and emotions in various situations of communication. It’s conventional to distinguish between: stylistics of the language or linguistic stylistics; stylistics of speech or literary stylistics.

1.2.1. Linguistic stylistics

Stylistics of the language or linguistic stylistics occupies itself with various questions of style peculiar to the national language, 1) i.e. it studies expressive, emotional, evaluative potential of various language units on the one hand, 2) on the other hand, deals with peculiarities of vocabulary, grammar, syntax of such subsystems of the language, which are known as functional styles. The linguistic project constitutes the connection between the two other subprojects. It consists of two parts.

1. On the one hand, linguistic insights will be re-interpreted as instruments for stylistic analysis. Starting points are the English tradition in stylistics and especially the recent development of cognitive poetics. These insights will be transferred to Dutch, using linguistic analyses of relevant elements and constructions in Dutch. On the same basis, the repertoire of possible stylistically effective features of Dutch will be supplemented. Findings will contribute to the selection of stylistic features that will be investigated in the other two subprojects.

2. On the other hand, results from the other two subprojects will be interpreted in the theoretical framework of cognitive linguistics. An important challenge for linguistics in this programme is the question whether one can find independent evidence for connections between linguistic features of formulations (micro-level) and effects at the textual macro-level as proposed in the other two subprojects. This project's scientific relevance for the field of linguistic study consists in exploring the way the semantic description of individual linguistic elements may benefit from the macro-level perspective induced by the other subprojects.

In linguistics there are different terms to denote particular means by which utterances are foregrounded, i.e. made more conspicuous, more effective and therefore imparting some additional information. They are called expressive means, stylistic means, stylistic markers, stylistic devices, tropes, figures of speech and other names. All these terms are used indiscriminately and are set against those means which we shall conventionally call neutral.

Most linguists distinguish ordinary (also: substantial, referential) semantic and stylistic differences in meaning. In fact all language means contain meaning—some of them contain generally acknowledged grammatical and lexical meanings, others besides these contain specific meanings which may be called stylistic. Such meanings go alongside primary meanings and, as it were, are superimposed on them. Stylistic meanings are so to say de-automatized. As is known, the process of automatization, i.e. a speedy and subconscious use of language data, is one of the indispensable ways of making communication easy and quickly decodable. But when a stylistic meaning is involved, the process of de-automatization checks the reader's perception of the language. His attention is arrested by a peculiar use of language media and he begins, to the best of his ability, to decipher it. He becomes aware of the form in which the utterance is cast and as the result of this process a twofold use of the language medium ordinary and stylistic becomes apparent to him. As will be shown later this twofold application of language means in some cases presents no difficulty. It is so marked that even a layman can see it, as when a metaphor or a simile is used. But in some texts grammatically redundant forms or hardly noticeable forms, essential for the expression of stylistic meanings which carry the particular addi­tional information desired, may present a difficulty. What this information is and how it is conveyed to the mind of the reader can be explored only when a concrete communication is subjected to observation, which will be done later in the analyses of various stylistic devices and in the functioning of expressive means. In this connection the following passage from "Investigating English Style" by D. Crystal and D. Davy is of interest: "Features which are stylistically significant display different kinds and degrees of distinctiveness in a text: of two features, one may occur only twice in a text, the other may occur thirty times,— or a feature might be uniquely identifying in the language, only ever occurring in one variety, as opposed to a feature which is distributed throughout many or all varieties in different frequencies" [Crystal 1969, 21].

The category of expressiveness has long been the subject of heated discussions among linguists. In its etymological sense expressiveness may be understood as a kind of intensification of an utterance or of a part of it depending on the position in the utterance of the means that manifest this category and what these means are. Emotiveness, and correspondingly the emotive elements of language, are what reveal the emotions of writer or speaker. But these elements are not direct manifestations of the emotions they are just the echoes of real emotions, echoes which have undergone some intellectual recasting. They are designed to awaken co-experience in the mind of the reader. Expressiveness is a broader notion than emotiveness and is by no means to be reduced to the latter. Emotiveness is an integral part of expressiveness and, as a matter of fact, occupies a predominant position in the category of expressiveness. But there are media in language which aim simply at logical emphasis of certain parts of the utterance. They do not evoke any intellectual representation of feeling but merely serve the purpose of verbal actualization of .the utterance. Thus, for example, when we say "It was in July 1975 that the cosmos experiment of a joint American-Soviet flight took place" we make the utterance logically emphatic by a syntactical device which will be described in due course. The same thing is to be observed in these sentences:

(1) Mr. Smith was an extremely unpleasant person.

(2) Never will he go to that place again.

(3) In rushed the'soldiers!

(4) It took us a very, very long time to get there.

In sentence (1) expressiveness is achieved by lexical means—the word 'extremely'. In (2) and (3) by syntactical means—different types of inversion. In (4) the emphasis is materialized by the repetition of the word 'very' which is in itself a word used to intensify the utterance.

But in the sentences:

(1) Isn't she cute!

(2) Fool that he was!

(3) This goddam window won't open!

(4) We buddy-buddied together.

This quickie tour didn't satisfy our curiosity, we can register positive emotiveness", inasmuch as there are elements that evoke certain representations of the feeling of the speaker. In sentence (1) and (2) there are syntactical means which evoke this effect. In (3) and (4) there are lexical means — 'goddam', 'buddy-buddied' (= were on very friendly relations); in (5) — a morphological device (the suffix—ie).

It must be noted that to draw a hard and fast distinction between logical and emotional emphasis is not always possible. The fact is that the logical and the emotional frequently overlap. A too strong logical emphasis may colour the utterance with emotional elements, thus causing a kind of expressiveness which is both logical and emotive. However, the extremes are clearly set one against the other. Now it should be possible to define the notion of expressive means. The expressive means of a language are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of the utterance. These intensifying forms, wrought by social usage and recognized by their semantic function, have been singled out in grammars, courses in phonetics and dictionaries (including phraseological ones) as having special functions in making the utterances emphatic. Some of them are normalized, and good dictionaries label them as "intensifies". In most cases they have corresponding neutral synonymous forms. Compare, for example, the following pairs:

(1) He shall do it! = I shall make him do it.

(2) Isn't she cute! = She is very nice, isn't she?

Expressiveness may also be achieved by compositional devices in utterances comprising a number of sentences—in syntactical wholes and in paragraphs. This will be shown in the chapter on syntactical stylistic devices.

The most powerful expressive means of any language are phonetic. The human voice can indicate subtle nuances of meaning that no other means can attain. Pitch, melody, stress, pausation, drawling out certain syllables, whispering, a sing-song manner and other ways of using the voice are much more effective than any other means in intensifying an utterance emotionally or logically. In the language course of phonetics the patterns of emphatic intonation have been worked out, but many .devices have so far been little investigated. Paradoxal though it may seem, many of these means, the effect of which rests on a peculiar use of the voice, are banned from the linguistic domain. But there has appeared a new science—"paralinguistics"—of which all these devices are the inventory. The writer of this book holds the opinion that all the vocal peculiarities enumerated should be recog­nized as legitimate members of the phonetic structure of language and (hat therefore the term 'paralinguistics' should be done away with. Professor Seymour Chatman introduces the term 'phonostylistics' and defines it as a subject the purpose of which is "the study of the ways in which an author elects to constrain the phonology of the language beyond the normal requirements of the phonetic system" [Chatman 1967, 34 ].

As can be inferred from this quotation, phonetic expressive means and particu­larly phonetic stylistic devices are not deviations from "the normal requirements of the phonetic system" but a way of actualizing the typical in the given text. Vocal phenomena such as drawling, whisper­ing, etc. should be regarded as parts of the phonemic system on the same level as pitch, stress and tune. Passing over to some preliminary remarks on the morphological expressive mеans of the English language, we must point to what is now a rather impoverished set of media to which the quality of expressiveness can be attributed. However, there are some which alongside their ordinary grammatical function display a kind of emphasis and thereby are promoted to EMs. These are, for example, The Historical Present; the use of shall in the second and third person; the use of some demonstrative pronouns with an emphatic meaning as those, them ("Those gold candles Fixed in heaven's air"—Shakespeare); some cases of nominalization, particularly when conversion of verbal stems is alien to the meaning of the verbs or the nominalization of phrases and sentences and a number of other morphological forms, which acquire expressiveness in the context, though this capacity is not yet registered as one of the latent properties of such forms.

Among the wоrd-building means we find a great many forms which serve to make the utterance more expressive by intensifying some of their semantic and/or grammatical properties. The diminutive suffixes -y (-ie), -let, e.g. 'dearie', 'sonny`, 'auntie', 'streamlet', add some emotional colouring to the words. We may also refer to what are called neologisms and nonce-words formed with non-productive suffixes or with Greek roots, as 'cleanorama'. Certain affixes have gained such a power of expressiveness that they begin functioning as separate words, absorbing all of the generalizing meaning they attach to different roots, as, for example, isms and clones at the lexical level there are a great many words which due to their inner expressiveness constitute a special layer. There are words with emotive meaning only (interjections), words which have both referential and emotive meaning (epithets), words which still retain a twofold meaning: denotative and connotative (love, hate, sympathy), words belonging to the layers of slang and vulgar words, or to poetic or archaic layers..The expressive power of these words cannot be doubted, especially when they are compared with the neutral vocabulary. All kinds of set phrases (phraseological units) generally possess the property of expressiveness. Set phrases, catch words, proverbs, sayings comprise a considerable number of language units which serve to make speech emphatic, mainly from the emotional point of view. Their use in every-day speech is remarkable for the subjective emotional colouring they produce. It must be noted here that due to the generally emotional character of colloquial language, all kinds of set expressions are natural in everyday speech. They are, as it were, part and parcel of this form of human intercourse. But when they appear in written texts their expressiveness comes to the fore because written texts, as has already been pointed out, are logically directed unless, of course, there is a deliberate attempt to introduce an expressive element in the utterance. The set expression is a time-honoured device to enliven speech, but this device, it must be repeated, is more sparingly used in written texts. In everyday speech one can often hear such phrases as: "Well, it will only add fuel to the fire" and the like, which in fact is synonymous to the neutral: "It will only make the situation worse."

Finally, at the syntactical level there are many constructions which, when set against synonymous neutral ones, will reveal a certain degree of logical or emotional emphasis. In order to be able to distinguish between expressive means and stylistic devices, to which we now pass, it is necessary to bear in mind that expressive means are concrete facts of language. They are studied in the respective language manuals, though it must be once again regretfully stated that some grammarians iron out all elements carrying expressiveness from their works, as they consider this quality irrelevant to the theory of language. Stylistics studies the expressive means of language, but from a special angle. It takes into account the modifications of meanings which various expressive means undergo when they are used in different functional styles. Expressive means have a kind of radiating effect. They noticeably colour the whole of the utterance no matter whether they are logical or emotional.

Thus, a stylistic device (SD) is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalized status and thus becoming a generative model. It follows then that an SD is an abstract pattern, a mould into which any content can be poured. As is known, the typical is not only that which is in frequent use, but that also which reveals the essence of a phenomenon with the greatest and most evident force. SDs function in texts as marked units. They always carry some kind of additional information, either emotive or logical. That is why the method of free variation employed in descriptive linguistics cannot be used in stylistics because any substitution may cause damage to the semantic and aesthetic aspect of the utterance. A. W. De Groot points out the significance of SDs in the following passage:"Each of the aesthetically relevant features of the text serves to create a feature of the gestalt of the poem. In this sense the relevant linguistic features may be said to function or operate as gestalt factors." [De Groot 295.]. The idea of the function of SDs is expressed most fully by V. M. Zhirmunsky in the following passage: "The justification and the sense of each device lies in the wholeness of the artistic impression which the work of art as a self-contained thing produces on us. Each' separate aesthetic fact, each poetical device (emphasis added) finds its place in the system, the sounds and sense of the words, the syntactical structures, the scheme of the plot, the compositional purport — all in equal degree express this wholeness and find justification."[Жирмунский 1928, 354]. The-motivated use of SDs in a genuine work of emotive literature is not easily discernible, though they are used in some kind of relation to the facts, events, or ideas dealt with in the artistic message. Most SDs display an application of two meanings: the ordinary one, in other words, the meaning (lexical or structural) which has already been established in the language-as-a-system, and a special meaning which is superimposed on the unit by the text, i.e. a meaning which appears in the language-in-action.

Sometimes, however, the twofold application of a lexical unit is accomplished not by the interplay of two meanings but by two words (generally synonyms) one of which is perceived against the background of the other. This will be shown in subsequent chapters. The conscious transformation of a language fact into a stylistic device has been observed by certain linguists whose interests in linguistic theory have gone beyond the boundaries of grammar. Thus A. A. Potebnya writes:"As far back as in ancient Greece and Rome and with few exceptions up to the present time, the definition of a figurative use of a word has been based on the contrast between ordinary speech, used in its own, natural, primary meaning, and transferred speech." [Потебня 1905, 204]The contrast which the author of the passage quoted points to, can not always be clearly observed. In some SDs it can be grasped immediately; in others it requires a keen eye and sufficient training to detect it. It must be emphasized that the contrast reveals itself most clearly when our mind perceives twofold meanings simultaneously. The meanings run parallel: one of them taking precedence over the other. Thus in The night has swallowed him up the word 'swallow' has two meanings: a) referential and b) contextual (to make disappear, to make vanish). The meaning (b) takes precedence over the referential (a).The same can be observed in the sentence: Is there not blood enough upon your penal code that more must be poured forth to ascend to Heaven and testify against you? (Byron) The interrogative form, i.e. the structural meaning of a question, runs parallel with the imposed affirmative thought, i.e. the structural meaning of a statement, and it is difficult to decide which of the two structural meanings—the established or the superimposed—takes the upper hand. In the following chapters where detailed analysis of the different SDs will be carried out, we shall try, where possible, to consider which of the two meanings realized simultaneously outweighs the other. The birth of SDs is a natural process in the development of language media. Language units which are used with more or less definite aims of communication in various passages of writing and in various func­tional styles begin gradually to develop new features, a wider range, of functions, thus causing polyfunctionality. Hence they can be presented as invariants with concrete variables. The interrelation between expressive means and stylistic devices can be worded in terms of the theory of information. Expressive means have a greater degree of predictability than stylistic devices. The latter may appear in an environment which may seem alien and therefore be only slightly or not at all predictable. Expressive means, on the con­trary, follow the natural course of thought, intensifying it by means commonly used in language. It follows that SDs carry a greater amount of information and therefore require a certain effort to decode their meaning and purport. SDs must be regarded as a special code which has to be well known to the reader in order to be deciphered easily.

The notion of language as a special code is now very much practised in the analyses of the functions of language, units. E. Stankievicz sees a kind of code-switching when SDs are employed. He also acknowledges the twofold application of the language code when "... the neutral, basic code serves as the background against which the elements of another system acquire expressive prominence within the context of the basic system" [Stankievicz 1964, 246]. SDs are used sparingly in emotive prose, lest they should overburden the text with implications thus hindering the process of decoding. They are abundantly used in poetry and especially so in some trends of poetical tradition, consequently retarding menial absorption of the content [Гальперин 1974, 136]. Not every stylistic use of a language fact will come under the term SD, although some usages call forth a stylistic meaning. There are practically unlimited possibilities of presenting any language fact in what is vaguely called its stylistic use. For a language fact to be promo­ted to the level of an SD there is one indispensable requirement, which has already been mentioned above, viz. that it should so be used to call forth a twofold perception of lexical or/and structural meanings. Even a nonce use can and very often does create, the necessary conditions for the appearance of an SD. But these are only the prerequisites for the appearance of an SD. Only when a newly minted language unit which materializes the twofold application of meanings occurs repeatedly in different environments, can it spring into Hie as an SD and subse­quently be registered in the system of SDs of the given language. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish between a stylistic use of a language unit, which acquires what we call a stylistic meaning, and a stylistic device, which is the realization of an already well-known abstract scheme designed to achieve a particular artistic effect. Thus many facts of English grammar are said to be used with stylistic meaning. But most of them have not yet been raised to the level of SDs because they remain unsystematized and so far perceived as nonce uses. They are, as it were, still wandering in the vicinity of the realm of SDs without being admitted into it. This can indirectly be proved by the fact that they have no special name in the English language system of SDs. An exception, perhaps, is the Historical Present which meets the requirements of an SD. So far the system of stylistic devices has not been fully recognized as legitimate members of the general system of language. This is mainly due to the above-mentioned conception of grammatical theory as dealing exclusively with a perfectly organized and extremely rigid scheme of language rules, precise and accurate in its application

1.2.3.Literary stylistics

Stylistics of speech or literary stylistics studies the style of various writers or literary movements, or certain stylistic phenomena taken in their chronological developments, it deals with study of real text with the aim of discovering how content is expressed not only according to the norm but also due to deviation (отклонение) of the norm.

In the literary language the norm is the invariant of the phonemic, morphological, lexical and syntactical patterns in circulation during a given period in the development of the given language.

Any literary work of irrespective of its genre (poem, short story, novel, etc.), or its literary trend (realistic, naturalistic, romantic, etc.) is a unique and complete world, created by the author in precisely the way his imagination has urged him to create. Though it is a product of the author's imagination, it is always based upon objective reality. A literary work is thus a fragment of objective reality arranged in accordance with the vision of the author and permeated by his idea of the world.

The Theme of a literary work may be understood to be an interaction of human characters under certain circumstances, such as some social or psychological conflict (war and peace, clash of ideologies and the like).

Within a single work the basic theme may alternate with rival themes and their relationship may be very complex. Theme is the interpreted aspect of life(war and peace, race discrimination and the like).The same theme may be the basic theme, rival themes, by-themes.

Thus, for example, the basic theme of «The Forsyte Saga» may be defined as the life of the English middle class at the end of and after Victorian epoch. The by-themes in saga are numerous: the Boer and the 1st World War, the first Labour Government, the postwar generation, the arts and artists, etc.

The idea of a literary work can be defined as the underlying thought and emotional attitude transmitted to the reader by the whole poetic structure of the literary text.

Genre. A story or a novel may belong to one of the genres: social, scientific, historical, detective, documentary.

The author’s point of view. In contemporary fiction the author’s is to effectively impart to the reader various views and emotions of both: the writer and his personages and to impress the reader that the events described are real. This is fully depends on the form of the author’s narration or speech which is defined as the author’s point of view. There are four basic points of view: omniscient, limited omniscient, first person, objective.

Composition. The interrelation between different components of literary work is called composition. Any fiction text consists of a combination of relatively independent pieces of narrative: narration, description, dialogue, interior monologue.

The plot structure. The plot of a literary work is its plan and the structure of the action comprising a series of incidents or system of events. Episode is a separate incident, helping to unfold the action in a large piece of fiction. Each and every event that represents the conflict has a beginning, a development and an end. The plot accordingly consists of exposition, story and ending..

In the exposition the time, the place and the subject of the action are laid out. Some light may be shed on the circumstances that will influence the development of the action.

Story is that part of the plot which represents the beginning of the collision and the collision itself.

Climax is the highest point of the action.

Denouement is the event or events that bring the action to an end.

There is no uniformity as far as the above mentioned components of the plot and their sequence in the text are concerned. Some short stories may begin straight with the conflict without any exposition, while others have no denouement in the conventional sense of the word (E. Hemingway’s stories).

A work of narrative prose that has all the components mentioned above (exposition, story, climax and denouement) is said to have a closed plot structure.

A literary work in which the action is represented without an obvious culmination, which does not contain all the above mentioned components, is said to have an open plot structure.

Character may be presented either directly or indirectly. Also the character my be flat or round. The flat characteris impressionistic. The round character is complex and many-sided. The essential character in the conflict I referred to as the protagonist. The forces acting against him are referred to as antagonist.

Conflict. The main characters may be in conflict with some other person or a group of person(a man against man conflict ) or some external force , for example physical nature(man against environment conflict). He also may be in conflict with society(a man against society conflict) or some element in his own nature(a man against himself conflict) [ Нуриахметова 2010, 1-6]

1.2.2 Functional stylistics

Each style of the literary language makes use of a group of language means the interrelation of which is peculiar to the given style. It is the co-ordination of the language means and stylistic devices (SD) which shapes the distinctive features of each style, and not the language means or SD themselves. A style of language – a system of co-ordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect.

THE BELLES-LETTRES STYLE

  • the purpose is not to prove but only to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer. This is the cognitive function of the style.

  • genuine, to trite, imagery, achieved by purely linguistic devices;

  • use of words in contextual and very often in more than one dictionary meaning, or at least greatly influenced by the lexical environment.

  • a vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree of author's personal evaluation of things or phenomena;

  • a peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy;

  • the introduction of the typical features of colloquial language to a full degree (in plays) or a lesser one (in emotive prose) or a slight degree, if any (in poems)

  • individual, distinctive properties, aesthetic-cognitive effect.

Substyles:

  • The language of poetry (verse) – rhyme, rhythmic and phonetic arrangement, strict orderly arrangement, compact, brevity of expression, epigram-like utterances; fresh, unexpected imaginary; elliptical and fragmentary sentences and other [SEM]. Versification and prosody.

  • Emotive prose (fiction): the imagery not so rich and the % of words with contextual meaning is not so high as it is in poetry, the idiosyncrasy of the author not so clearly discernible; monologue and dialogue, use of elements from other styles (newspaper, official, scientific);

  • The language of drama. : stylised language, entirely dialogue, the author's speech is almost entirely excluded except for the playwright's remarks and stage directions, significant though they may be. Use the norms of the literary language of the given period.

PUBLICISTIC STYLE

  • general aim is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer of the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view … not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well (brain-washing function).

  • combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal;

  • features, common with the style of scientific prose and emotive prose;

  • coherent and logical syntactical structure, expanded system of connectives and careful paragraphing;

  • use of words with emotive meaning, the use of other SD as in emotive prose, but

  • the SD are not fresh or genuine.

  • individual element is little in evidence here, generally toned down and limited

  • brevity of expression (sometimes epigrammatic) – leading feature;

Substyles:

  • oratorical (direct contact with the listeners);

  • radio commentary;

  • essay (moral, philosophical, literary; book review in journals and magazines, pamphlets) is a literary composition of moderate length on … subjects. It never goes deep into the subject but merely touches upon the surface, a series of personal and witty comments;

  • articles (political, social, economic);

NEWSPAPER STYLE

  • a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader.

  • primary function is to impart information, seeks to influence public opinion on political and other matters

  • (brief news items and communiqués, press reports, purely informational, advertisement and announcements, editorials)

  • alleges and claims, restrictions of time and space

  • LED]: special political and economic terms, non-term political vocabulary, newspaper clichés, abbreviations, neologisms;

  • syntactic constructions, indicating a lack of assurance of the reporter as to the correctness of the facts reported or his desire to avoid responsibility [Complex Subject]

  • complex sentences with a developed system of clauses;

  • syntactical complexes: verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial) and verbal noun constructions;

  • specific word order – five-w-and-h-pattern rule: (who-what-why-how-where-when)

  • attributive noun groups (e.g. leap into space age);

  • the most concise is the headlines, + considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement, the use of emotionally coloured words and elements of emotive syntax);

SCIENTIFIC PROSE STYLE

  • aim: to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena, etc.

  • logical sequence of utterances with clear indication of their interrelations and interdependence; logical coherence of ideas expressed;

  • objective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any individuality, striving for the most generalised form of expression.

  • developed and varied system of connectives

  • use of terms specific to each given branch of science

  • direct referential (and primary logical) meaning of the general vocabulary; self-explanatory terms; neutral and common literary words; the possibility of ambiguity is avoided;

  • Hardly a single word will be found here which is used in more than one meaning, nor will be any words with contextual meaning;

  • sentence-patterns (postulatory, argumentative, formulative)

  • based on facts already known, on facts systematised and defined;

  • quotations and references

  • foot-notes, digressive in character

  • impersonality: frequent use of passive constructions, [infinitive constructions]

  • Impersonal passive constructions are frequently used with the verbs suppose, assume, point out

  • far greater amount of preliminary knowledge

  • there may be hypotheses, pronouncements and conclusions, (backed up by strong belief)

THE STYLE OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS

  • the main aim is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking (the state and the citizen, citizen and citizen, the society and its members, two or more enterprises or bodies, a person and subordinates)

  • the aim is to reach agreement between two contracting parties.

  • special system of clichés, terms and set expressions; conventionality of expression;

  • each of subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions;

  • the encoded character of language; symbols: special terminological nomenclature, abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions;

  • use of words in their logical dictionary meaning. There is no room for words with contextual meaning or for any kind of simultaneous realisation of two meanings.

  • Word with emotive meaning are also not to be found in the style of official documents, except those which are used in business letters as conventional phrases of greeting or close (as Dear Sir)

  • absence of any emotiveness: (commercial correspondence) emotional words and phrases

  • compositional patterns, compositional design; infinitive object clauses

  • a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncement into one sentence, the whole document in one sentence [acc. to] its formal syntactical structure

Substyles:

  • the language of business documents,

  • the language of legal documents,

  • that of diplomacy,

  • that of military documents.

1.3. Problem of image-creation in fiction texts

Literary image is one of the fundamental notions both in literary and linguostylistics. It may refer a) to the way of reflecting the objective reality (text serves as the image of reality); b) to characters; c) to any meaningful unit (word, phrase, detail).

We should distinguish: 1) macroimage - the literary work itself understood as an image of life, visioned and depicted by the author; 2) character image; 3) event image; 4) landscape; 5) microimages - words within the poetic structure - which serve to build images of a higher level.

Literature is a medium for transmitting aesthetic information. To be operative, it must, like any other kind of communication, involve not only the addresser (the author) but also the addressee (the reader). Indeed, a literary work is always written for an audience. Whether the author admits it or not, he is urged on by a desire to impart his vision of the world, his attitude towards it, to someone, i.e. to an addressee. His attitude may be quite obviously expressed, or, on the contrary, be presented in a non-committal, impersonal way. Thus, the literary work is an act of communication of the author with the reader.

Language is the medium of literature, it is capable of transmitting practically any kind of information. It has names for all things, phenomena and relations of objective reality. It is so close to life that an illusion of their almost complete identity is created, for man lives, works and thinks in the medium of language; his behaviour finds an important means of expression primarily in language.

Language is closely connected with nationality. And even when a person speaks a language foreign to him, his own nationality can be clearly identified. Language is constantly changing. Changes in language are brought about by external, i.e. social causes (for language develops simultaneously with the culture of the people that speaks it) as well as by internal causes. The results of all these changes remain in the language.

Stylistics studies many problems treated in lexicology. These are the problems of meaning, connotations, synonymy, functional differentiation of vocabulary according to the sphere of communication and some other issues. For a reader without some awareness of the connotations and history of words, the images hidden in their root and their stylistic properties, a substantial part of the meaning of a literary text, whether prosaic or poetic, may be lost.

Thus, for instance, the mood of despair in O. Wilde’s poem “Taedium Vitae” (Weariness of Life) is felt due to an accumulation of epithets expressed by words with negative, derogatory connotations, such as: desperate, paltry, gaudy, base, lackeyed, slanderous, lowliest, meanest.

An awareness of all the characteristic features of words is not only rewarded because one can feel the effect of hidden connotations and imagery, but because without it one cannot grasp the whole essence of the message the poem has to convey.

Imagery is mainly produced by the interplay of different meanings. Concrete objects are easily perceived by the senses. Abstract notions are perceived by the mind. When an abstract notion is by the force of the mind represented through a concrete object, an image is the result. Imagery may be built on the interrelation of two abstract notions or two concrete objects or an abstract and a concrete one.

Three types of meaning can be distinguished, which we shall call logical, emotive and nominal respectively.

Logical meaning is the precise naming of a feature of the idea, phenomenon or object, the name by which we recognize the whole, of the concept. This meaning is also synonymously called referential meaning or direct meaning. We shall use the terms logical and referential as being most adequate for our purpose.

Referential meanings are liable to change. As a result the referential meanings of one word may denote different concepts. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary referential, or logical, meaning.

Thus, the adverb inwardly has the primary logical meaning of 'internally', or 'within'. Its secondary logical meanings are: 'towards the centre', 'mentally', 'secretly', which are to some extent derived from the primary meaning.1 Some dictionaries give a very extended list of primary and secondary logical meanings, and it is essential for stylistic purposes to distinguish them, as some stylistic devices are built on the interplay of primary and secondary logical meanings.

All the meanings fixed by authoritative English and American dictionaries comprise what is called the semantic structure of the word. The meanings that are to be found in speech or writing and which are accidental should not be regarded as components of the semantic structure of the word. They may be transitory, inasmuch as they depend on the context. They are contextual meanings.

Let us compare the meanings of the word presence in the following two sentences.

"The governer said that he would not allow the presence of federal troops on the soil of his State."

"...the General has been faced with the problem of the country's presence on foreign soil, the stubborn resistance of officers and officials..."

In the first sentence the word presence merely means '...the state of being present', whereas in the second sentence the meaning of the word expands into '...occupation', i. e. the seizure and control of an area, especially foreign territory, by military forces.

The first meaning is the dictionary meaning of the word. The second meaning is a contextual one. It lives only in the given text and disappears if the context is altered. However, there are definite reasons to assume that a number of derivative meanings are given place in dictionaries on the basis of contextual meanings. When the two meanings clearly co-exist in the utterance, we say there is an interaction of dictionary and contextual meanings. When only one meaning is perceived by the reader, we are sure to find this meaning in dictionaries as a derivative one.

Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether there is a simultaneous materialization of two dictionary logical meanings or an interplay of a dictionary and a contextual meaning. The difficulty is caused, on the one hand, by insufficient objective criteria of what should be fixed in dictionaries as already established language facts and, on the other hand, by deliberate political, aesthetic, moral and other considerations on the part of the compilers of the dictionaries.

Thus, in Byron's use of the word arise in the line "Awake, ye sons of Spain, awake, arise!" the word arise has the long-established meaning of 'revolt'. It is not contextual any longer. But no English or American dictionary fixes this particular meaning in the semantic structure of the word, and it is left to the ability of the attentive reader to supply the obvious meaning. .

The same can be said about the word appeasement. There is an implicit difference in the treatment of the semantic structure of this word in British and American dictionaries. In no British dictionary will you find the new derivative meaning, viz. 'a sacrifice of moral principle in order to avert aggression'. Some modern American dictionaries include this meaning in the semantic structure of the word 'appeasement'. The reason for the difference is apparent—the British prime minister Chamberlain in 1938 played an ignoble role in Munich, sacrificing Czechoslovakia to Hitler's greed. The new meaning that was attached to the word (in connection with this historical event) cannot now be removed from its semantic structure.

A dictionary meaning is materialized in the context; a contextual meaning is born in the context. However, dictionaries, though the only reliable sources of information regarding the meanings of a given word, apply very diverse and even contradictory principles in ascertaining the general acceptability and recognition of some of the shades of .meaning which are in process of being shaped as independent meanings. Thus, to excuse oneself in the meaning of 'to leave', as in 'Soames excused himself directly after dinner' (Galsworthy); or the meaning of a thought = 'a little' as in 'A thought more fashionably than usual' (Galsworthy) are fixed as separate meanings in some modern British and American dictionaries, but are neglected in others.

Every word possesses an enormous potentiality for generating new meanings. This power is often under-estimated by scholars who regard a word as a unit complete in itself and acknowledge a new-born meaning only when it has firmly asserted itself in language and become accepted by the majority of the language community. But not to see the latent possibilities of a word is not to understand the true nature of this unit of- language.

The potentiality of words can also be noted in regard to emоtive meaning. Emotive meaning also materializes a concept in the word, but, unlike logical meaning, emotive meaning has reference not directly to things or phenomena of objective reality, but to the feelings and emotions of the speaker towards these things or to his emotions as such. Therefore the emotive meaning bears reference to things, phenomena or ideas through a kind of evaluation of them. For example:

I feel so darned lonely. (Graham Green, "The Quiet American".) He classified him as a man of monstrous selfishness; he did not want to see that knife descend, but he felt it for one great fleeting instant. (London)

The italicized words have no logical meaning, only emotive meaning. Their function is to reveal the subjective, evaluating attitude of the writer to the things or events spoken of. Men-of-letters themselves are well aware that words may reveal a subjective evaluation and sometimes use it for definite stylistic effects, thus calling the attention of the reader to the meaning of such words. Thus, for example, in the following passage from "The Man of Property" by Galsworthy:

"She was not a flirt, not even a coquette—words dear to the heart of his generation, which loved to define things by a good, broad, inadequate word—but she was dangerous."

Here the words 'flirt' and 'coquette' retain some of their logical meaning. They mean a person (particularly a girl) who endeavours to attract the opposite sex, who toys with her admirers. But both words have acquired an additional significance, viz. a derogatory shade of meaning. This shade may grow into an independent meaning and in this case will be fixed in dictionaries as having a special emotive meaning, as, for example, have the words fabulous, terrifying, stunning, spectacular, swell, top, smart, cute, massive and the like.

Many words acquire an emotive meaning only in a definite context. In that case we say that the word has a contextual emotive meaning.

Stephen Ullmann holds that "Only the context can show whether a word should be taken as a purely objective expression, or whether it is primarily designed to convey and arouse emotions. This is obvious in the case of words like liberty, and justice, which are frequently charged with emotional implications. But even colourless everyday terms may, in freak contexts, acquire unexpected emotional overtones, as, for instance, 'wall' in this passage from a Midsummer Night's Dream:

'And thou, О wall, О sweet, О lovely wall, ...Thanks, courteous wall... О wicked wall.'"1

Ullmann's point of view is only partly true. There are, of course, words which, as we have pointed out, may acquire emotive meaning in a context. Ordinarily though, and particularly when taken as isolated lexical units, they can hardly be said to possess emotive meaning. But Ullmann's opinion that only the context can inject emotive meaning into words, contradicts the facts. In the vocabulary of almost any European language there are words which are undoubtedly bearers of emotive meaning. These are interjections, oaths or swear-words, exclamatory words (variants of interjections) and a great number of qualitative or intensifying adjectives some of which have already been mentioned. The emotive meaning of some of these classes of words is so strong that it suppresses the co-existing logical meaning, as, for example, in stunning and smart. It is significant that these words are explained in dictionaries by means of synonymous words charged with strong emotional implications, i.e. words that direct the mind not to objective things, ideas or phenomena but to the feelings. Thus, the word smart is explained in "The Penguin English Dictionary" thus: "stinging, pungent, keen; vigorous, brisk; clever, intelligent; impertinent; shrewd; witty; spruce, neat, gay, fashionable!"2

Other classes of words with emotive meaning have entirely lost their logical meaning and function in the language as interjections. Such words as alas, oh, ah, pooh, darn, gosh and the like have practically no logical meaning at all; words like the devil, Christ, God, goodness gracious, etc., are frequently used only in their emotive meaning. The same can be said about the words bloody, damn and other expletives.

Contrary to Stephen Ullmann, we think that emotive meaning is inherent in a definite group of words and adherent to many words denoting emotions and feelings even when taken out of the context.

Ullmann's example of the word wall as bearing strong emotive meaning does not stand scrutiny. He overlooks the real bearers of emotive meaning, viz. the words preceding or following it: O, sweet, lovely (these three words are repeated several times), courteous, wicked. It goes without saying that these words strongly colour3 the word wall, but no emotive meaning as a counterpart of logical meaning can be observed here. Emotive meaning of words plays an important role in stylistics. Therefore it should never be underrated. A very keen eye or ear will always distinguish elements of emotive meaning. Emotional colouring may be regarded as a rudimentary stage of emotive meaning. This is generally fixed as an independent meaning in good dictionaries. Anything recognizable as having a strong impact on our senses may be considered as having emotive meaning, either dictionary or contextual.

And finally we come to nоminal meaning. There are words which, while expressing concepts, indicate a particular object out of a class. In other words, these units of the language serve the purpose of singling out one definite and singular object out of a whole class of similar objects. These words are classified in grammars as proper nouns. The nature of these words can be understood if we have a clear idea of the difference between the two main aspects of a word: "nomination" and "signification". These aspects are also called "reference" and "signification" or "denotation" and "connotation". The difference can roughly be illustrated by the following example.

Let us take the word table. The first thing that appears in our mind is the general notion deprived of any concrete features or properties. This is the signification. But by the word table we may also denote a definite table. In this case we use a definite article and the meaning becomes nominating. But we may also fix a definite name to the object which we want to be recognized as a unique object because of its peculiar properties. In this way proper names appear. Their function is not to single out one of the objects of the class for one particular occasion, as in the case with the use of the definite article, but to make it the bearer of the properties which our mind has attached to it. Thus nominal meaning is a derivative logical meaning. To distinguish nominal meaning from logical meaning the former is designated by a capital letter. Such words as Smith, Longfellow, Everest, Black Sea, Thames, Byron are said to have nominal meaning. The logical meaning from which they originate may in the course of time be forgotten and therefore not easily traced back. Most proper names have nominal meanings which may be regarded as homonyms of common nouns with their logical or emotive meanings, as Hope, Browning, Taylor, Scotland, Black, Chandler, Chester (from the Latin word castra—'camp'). Hence logical meanings which nominate an object, at the same time signify the whole class of these objects. Nominal meanings which nominate an object are deprived of the latter function because they do not represent a class. It must be remembered, however, that the nominal meaning will always be secondary to the logical meaning.

The process of development of meaning may go still further. A nominal meaning may assume a logical meaning due to certain external circumstances. The result is that a logical meaning takes its origin in a nominal meaning. Some feature of a person which has made him or her noticeable and which is recognized by the community is made the basis for the new logical meaning. Thus dunce (a dullard, a stupid person) is derived from the personal name, Duns Scotus, a medieval scholastic; hooligan (a ruffian) is probably derived from the name of a rowdy fam-

ily, cf. the Irish name Houligan, in a comic song popular about 1885; boycott (refuse to do business with, combine together against a person by breaking off all relations with him). The verb boycott was first used in 1880 to describe the action of the Land League towards Captain Boycott, an Irish landlord. The nominal meanings of these words have now faded away and we perceive only one, the logical meaning. But sometimes the process of attaching nominal meaning to a word with a logical meaning takes place as it were, before our eyes.

Conclusion on chapter I

The situation in which a type of language is found can usually be seen as appropriate or inappropriate to the style of language used. A personal love letter would probably not be a suitable location for the language of this article. However, within the language of a romantic correspondence there may be a relationship between the letter’s style and its context. It may be the author’s intention to include a particular word, phrase or sentence that not only conveys their sentiments of affection, but also reflects the unique environment of a lover’s romantic composition. Even so, by using so-called conventional and seemingly appropriate language within a specific context there exists the possibility that this language may lack exact meaning and fail to accurately convey the intended message from author to reader, thereby rendering such language obsolete precisely because of its conventionality. In addition, any writer wishing to convey their opinion in a variety of language that they feel is proper to its context could find themselves unwittingly conforming to a particular style, which then overshadows the content of their writing.The style is a pattern of linguistic features distinguishing one piece of writing from another or one category of writing from another. A writer’s style often varies from work to work; there is usually enough uniformity in one’s article to allow the readers to observe that this overall style differs from the other’s style.In the study of stylistics, the concern is mainly on the usage of stylistics, which is a discipline that studies the sum of stylistic features of the different varieties of language, the language, aspects of the speech event, language varieties and function, stylistic study and other spheres of study. On my opinion stylistic study concerns itself with the situational features that influence variations in language use, the criterion for the classification of language variety, and the description and interpretation of the linguistic features and functions of the main varieties (both literary and non-literary) of a language.

Chapter II Literary stylistic analysis

2.1. The revelation of the ways of image-creation in fiction texts

2.1.1. The stylistic analysis of “The Selfish Giant” by Oscar Wilde

Genre is psychological because in this text we can see changes in emotional life of main character.

Composition : Narration of this text is dynamic, it gives continous account of events. There are many dialogues ("We don't know," answered the children; "he has gone away."You must tell him to be sure and come here to-morrow," said the Giant. ).Also there are some interior monologues(“I hope there will be a change in the weather.”) (."Who hath dared to wound thee?" cried the Giant; "tell me, that I may take my big sword and slay him.""Nay!" answered the child )

The author’s point of view is omniscient. The story told by the third person: “Every afternoon, as they were coming from school, the children used to go and play in the Giant's garden.” ; ” After the seven years were over he had said all that he had to say, for his conversation was limited, and he determined to return to his own castle”.

Conflict : man against himself (first time giant doesn’t understand that nothing can’t be worse than to be alone)

Plot structure:

the beginning : ” Every afternoon, as they… "How happy we are here!" they cried to each other ”

the climax : “One day the Giant came back… So he built a high wall all round it, and put up a notice-board.”

the story: ” He was a very selfish Giant… and had never seen him before; and the Giant felt very sad”

Ending: “Suddenly he rubbed his eyes… all covered with white blossoms”

Characters: little boy – protagonist, indirect, round(he helped giant become better when he kiss him); selfish giant – antagonist, direct, flat(first time he hated peoples which played in his garden)

Theme is a best sides of peoples because selfish giant going through changes and becomes better with help of kind boy.

Idea of the text is that any can be better, but we need some help for it. Author shows us that even selfish giant become more kind, when he found a friend.

2.2. Stylistic analysis of “Louise” by William Somerset Maugham

William Somerset Maugham (1874-1965) is one of the best known writers of the present day. He was not only a novelist, but also one of the most successful dramatists and short-story writer.

The short-story “Louise” was published in 1936. This story is about the woman who used to get everything what she wants using her “weak heart”.

The gist of the problem raised by the author in this story is relationship between people. This problem is always urgent.

Idea conveyed by the author is that some people can be so selfish that they ready to ruin the lives of others (even the members of their own family) in order to achieve their aims.

Composition: the story is written in a form of narration. The narration is conducted on 1st person. It is not pointed where the action takes place in. The story is characterized by gripping narrative and deep emotional impact. It is permeated with irony. Narration broken by ironical portrayal of the main character Louise. For example, “She had too much delicacy ever to make a direct statement, but with a hint and a sigh and a little flutter of her beautiful hands she was able to make her meaning plain”.

The prevailing moods of the story are ironical and emotional. This story is realistic in style. It is reveals human virtues and vices.

The story “Louise” has an gripping and fast-moving plot. The plot of the story is complicated. The story has the following composition: there are no exposition. The development of the plot begins from the first paragraph. The climax is logically reached in dialogue between the narrator and Louise. The denouement is shown in the last paragraph. The elements of plot ordered chronologically.

There are two main characters: Louise and the author himself, where Louise is a antagonist and the author is protagonist. There are also some flat characters such as Tom Maitland, the first husband of Louse; George Hobhouse, her second hubsband, and her daughter Iris.

The author reveals the nature of his characters through actions and dialogues. For example, the Louise words “I shan’t live to trouble you long” shows her “sorry” for having a weak heart. The author is focused on human feelings and relationship, actions and motives. The character of main heroine Louise is drawn with admirable skill. And it reveals the author’s great knowledge of man’s inner world.

The story contains an abundance of stylistic devices. Especially often we can find the use of epithets and ironies. The great number of epithets such as gentle way of hers; frail, delicate girl with large and melancholy eyes; anxious adoration; dreadfully delicate; pathetic little smile; large blue eyes; plaintive smile, gentle smile, devilish woman etc. are used by author in order to show the appearance and to express some inner qualities of Louise.

There are a lot of instances of using ironies. Whole text is permeated with them. Let’s show some examples,

He gave up the games he excelled in, not because she wished him to, she was glad that he should play golf and hunt, but because by a coincidence she had a heart attack whenever he proposed to leave her for a day.

But who would want to be bothered with a wretched invalid like herself? Oddly enough more than one young man showed himself quite ready to undertake the charge and a year after Tom’s death she allowed George Hobhouse to lead her to the altar.

But at last she yielded as she always yielded, and he prepared to make his wife’s last few years as happy as might be.

Oh, well, you’ve been prepared for that for nearly twenty years now, haven’t you?’

With a sigh her mother let her do a great deal.
She died gently forgiving Iris for having killed her.

These ironies express the narrator negative attitude to Louise. They are used in order to show that he (the narrator) doesn’t believe that Louse’s heart is so weak.

Also we can find some phraseologies, such as behind my back, her life hangs on a thread, I shall be at death’s door, stir a finger, heaven knows, to fly into a passion, Louise was as good as her word. The using of phraseologies in this text makes it emotionally expressive and rich.

Besides them, we can point out some examples of repetitions: “Oh, I know, I know what you’ve always thought of me”; “If it kills me, it kills me”; I saw the face behind the mask and because I alone held out was determined that sooner or later I too should take the mask for the face; (the framing repetition); She did nothing of the kind; indeed, she would not leave me alone; she was constantly asking me to lunch and dine with her and once or twice a year invited me to spend a week (anaphora). This stylistic device also makes the story more expressive and emotional. There are some other stylistic devices such as metaphor: spark of humour, mistress of cold praise; simily: look upon her as a comic figure, she fooled herself as thoroughly as he fooled the world, they entrusted her to him as a sacred charge; hyperbole: do everything in the world for Louise, I’ve begged her on my bended knees and etc.

The story has a deep emotional appeal. It is intended to provoke thoughts.

Conclusion on chapter II

In this paper I have examined multiple motives for the stylistic choices in one text from a novel. Taken all together, these motives produce an effect far more impressive and moving than any description of the same scene or topic in ordinary, careless style. Since the scene in the novel occurs at the most important moment of the novel the impact of the text comes greatly into effect. The author chose a complex style in the hope that the details of the scene would remain in the readers’ minds.

Stylistic analysis is practiced as a part of understanding the possible meanings in a text. It is a useful discipline which encourages logical and creative thought and can be transferred to many other areas of academic study, such as discourse analysis or critical reading. The fact that stylistic analysis can be applied to a large variety of texts, as shown above, makes it a useful and important discipline.

Stylistic analysis is practiced as a part of understanding the possible meanings in a text. It is a useful discipline which encourages logical and creative thought and can be transferred to many other areas of academic study, such as discourse analysis or critical reading. The fact that stylistic analysis can be applied to a large variety of texts, as shown above, makes it a useful and important discipline.

General Conclusion

As is obvious from the names of the branches or types of stylistic studies this science is very closely linked to the linguistic disciplines philology students are familiar with: phonetics, lexicology and grammar due to the common study source. The term semantics is also widely used in linguistics in relation to verbal meanings. Meaning is not attached to the level of the word only, or for that matter to one level at all but correlates with all of them—morphemes, words, phrases or texts. This is one of the most challenging areas of research since practically all stylistic effects are based on the interplay between different kinds of meaning on different levels. Suffice it to say that there are numerous types of linguistic meanings attached to linguistic units, such as grammatical, lexical, logical, denotative, connotative, emotive, evaluative, expressive and stylistic. The theory of functional styles investigates the structure of the national linguistic space—what constitutes the literary language, the sublanguages and dialects mentioned more than once already. Literary stylistics will inevitably overlap with areas of literary studies such as the theory of imagery, literary genres, the art of composition, etc. Decoding stylistics in many ways borders culture studies in the broad sense of that word including the history of art, aesthetic trends and even information theory. As in many other aspects of life the situation changed in a language policy. That requires creation of new textbooks, dictionaries, manuals. In order to fulfill this goals one must know every field of linguistics. In my opinion the theme of the work is very actual because there is not any works which give full description of literary stilistic. Main goal of the work is to compare, analyze and find examples which belong to literary stylistic. The practical value of the research is that the material and the results of the given qualification work can serve the material for theoretical courses of lexicology , stylistics, typology as well as can be used for practical lessons in translations, home reading ,conversational practice and current events.

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Appendix

Somerset Maugham "Louise"

I could never understand why Louise bothered with me. She disliked me and I knew that behind my back she seldom lost the opportunity of saying a disagreeable thing about me. She had too much delicacy ever to make a direct statement, but with a hint and a sigh and a little gesture of her beautiful hands she was able to make her meaning plain. It was true that we had known one another almost intimately for five and twenty years, but it was impossible for me to believe that this fact meant much to her. She thought me a brutal, cynical and

vulgar fellow. I was puzzled at her not leaving me alone.' She did nothing of the kind; indeed, she was constantly asking me to lunch and dine with her and once or twice a year invited me to spend a week-end at her house in the country. Perhaps she knew that I alone saw her face behind the mask and she hoped that sooner or later I too should take the mask for the face.

I knew Louise before she married. She was then a frail, delicate girl with large and melancholy eyes. Her father and mother adored and worshipped her, for some illness, scarlet fever I think, had left her with a weak heart and she had to take the greatest care of herself. When Tom Maitland proposed to her they were dismayed, for they were convinced that she was much too delicate for marriage. But they were not too well off and Tom Maitland was rich. He promised to do everything in the world for Louise and finally they entrusted her to him. Tom Maitland was a big strong fellow, very good-looking and a fine athlete. He adored Louise. With her weak heart he could not hope to keep her with him long and he made up his mind to do everything he could to make her few years on earth happy. He gave up the games he played excellently, not because she wished him to, but because it so happened that she always had a heart attack whenever he was going to leave her for a day. If they had a difference of opinion she gave in to him at once for she was the most gentle wife a man could have, but her heart failed her and she would stay in bed, sweet and uncomplaining, for a week. He could not be such a brute as to cross her.

On one occasion seeing her walk eight miles on an expedition that she especially wanted to make, I remarked to Tom Maitland that she was stronger than one would have thought. He shook his head and sighed.

"No, no, she's dreadfully delicate. She's been to all the best heart specialists in the world and they all say that her life hangs on a thread. But she has a wonderfully strong spirit." He told her that I had remarked on her endurance.

"I shall pay for it tomorrow," she said to me in her melancholy way. "I shall be at death's door."

"I sometimes think that you're quite strong enough to do the things you want to," I murmured.

I had noticed that if a party was amusing she could dance till five in the morning, but if it was dull she felt very poorly' and Tom had to take her home early. I am afraid she did not like my reply, for though she gave me a sad little smile I saw no amusement in her large blue eyes.

"You can't expect me to fall down dead just to please you," she answered.

Louise outlived her husband. He caught his death of cold one day when they were sailing and Louise needed all the rugs there were to keep her warm. He left her a comfortable fortune and a daughter. Louise was inconsolable. It was wonderful that she managed to survive the shock. Her friends expected her speedily to follow poor Tom Maitland to the grave. Indeed they already felt dreadfully sorry for Iris, her daughter, who would be left an orphan. They redoubled their attentions towards Louise. They would not let her stir a finger; they insisted on doing everything in the world to save her trouble. They had to, because if it was necessary for her to do anything tiresome or unpleasant her heart failed her and she was at death's door. She was quite lost without a man to take care of her, she said, and she did not know how, with her delicate health, she was going to bring up her dear Iris. Her friends asked her why she did not marry again. Oh, with her heart it was out of the question, she answered.

A year after Tom's death, however, she allowed George Hobhouse to lead her to the altar. He was a fine fellow and he was not at all badly off. I never saw anyone so grateful as he for the privilege of being allowed to take care of this frail little thing.

"I shan't live to trouble you long," she said.

He was a soldier and an ambitious one, but he threw up his career. Louise's health forced her to spend the winter at Monte Carlo and the summer at Deauville. He prepared to make his wife's last few years as happy as he could.

"It can't be very long now," she said. "I'll try not to be troublesome."

For the next two or three years Louise managed, in spite of her weak heart, to go beautifully dressed to all the most lively parties, to gamble very heavily, to dance and even to flirt with tall slim young men. But George Hobhouse had not the strength of Louise's first husband and he had to brace himself now and then with a drink for his day's work as Louise's second husband. It is possible that the habit would have grown on him, which Louise would not have liked at all, but very fortunately (for her) the war broke out. He rejoined his regiment and three months later was killed. It was a great shock to Louise. She felt, however, that in such a crisis she must not give way to a private grief; and if she had a heart attack nobody heard of it. In order to distract her mind she turned her villa at Monte Carlo into a hospital for convalescent officers. Her friends told her that she would never survive the strain.

"Of course it will kill me," she said, "I know that. But what does it matter? I must do my bit."

It didn't kill her. She had the time of her life. There was no convalescent home in France that was more popular. I met her by chance in Paris. She was lunching at a restaurant with a tall and very handsome young Frenchman. She explained that she was there on business connected with the hospital. She told me that the officers were very charming to her. They knew how delicate she was and they wouldn't let her do a single thing. They took care of her, well - as though they were all her husbands. She sighed.

"Poor George, who would ever have thought5 that I with my heart should survive him?"

"And poor Tom!" I said.

I don't know why she didn't like my saying that. She gave me her melancholy smile and her beautiful eyes filled with tears.

"You always speak as though you grudged me the few years that I can expect to live."

"By the way, your heart's much better, isn't it?"

"It'll never be better. I saw a specialist this morning and he said I must be prepared for the worst."

"Oh, well, you've been prepared for that for nearly twenty years now, haven't you?"

When the war came to an end Louise settled in London. She was now a woman of over forty, thin and frail still, with large eyes and pale cheeks, but she did not look a day more than twenty-five. Iris, who had been at school and was now grown up, came to live with her.

"She'll take care of me," said Louise. "Of course it'll be hard on her to live with such a great invalid as I am, but it can only be for such a little while, I'm sure she won't mind."

Iris was a nice girl. She had been brought up with the knowledge that her mother's health was very weak. As a child she had never been allowed to make a noise. She had always realized that her mother must on no account be upset. And though Louise told her now that she would not hear of her sacrificing herself for a tiresome old woman the girl simply would not listen.

With a sigh her mother let her do a great deal.

"It pleases the child to think she's making herself useful," she said.

"Don't you think she ought to go out more?" I asked.

"That's what I'm always telling her. I can't get her to enjoy herself. Heaven knows, I never want anyone to give up their pleasures on my account."

And Iris, when I talked to her about it, said: "Poor dear mother, she wants me to go and stay with friends and go to parties, but the moment I start off anywhere she has one other heart attacks, so I much prefer to stay at home."

But presently she fell in love. A young friend of mine, a very good lad, asked her to marry him and she consented. I liked the child and was glad that she would be given at last the chance to lead a life of her own. But one day the young man came to me in great distress and told me that the marriage was postponed for an indefinite time. Iris felt that she could not desert her mother. Of course it was really no business of mine, but I made the opportunity to go and see Louise. She was always glad to receive her friends at teatime.

"Well, I hear that Iris isn't going to be married," I said after a while.

"I don't know about that. She's not going to be married as soon as I wished. I've begged her on my bended knees not to consider me, but she absolutely refuses to leave me."

"Don't you think it's rather hard on her?"

"Dreadfully. Of course it can only be for a few months, but I hate the thought of anyone sacrificing themselves for me."

"My dear Louise, you've buried two husbands, I can't see why you shouldn't bury at least two more."

"Oh, I know, I know what you've always thought of me. You've never believed that I had anything the matter with me, have you?"

I looked at her full and square.

"Never. I think you've carried out a bluff for twenty-five years. I think you're the most selfish and monstrous woman I have ever known. You ruined the lives of those two unhappy men you married and now you're going to ruin the life of your daughter."

I should not have been surprised if Louise had had a heart attack then.I fully expected her to fly into a passion. She only gave me a gentle smile.

"My poor friend, one of these days you'll be so dreadfully sorry you said this to me."

"Have you quite decided that Iris shall not marry this boy?"

"I've begged her to marry him. I know it'll kill me, but I don't mind. Nobody cares for me. I'm just a burden to everybody."

"Did you tell her it would kill you?"

"She made me."

"Nobody can make you do anything that you yourself don't want to do."

"She can marry her young man tomorrow if she likes. If it kills me, it kills me."

"Well, let's risk it, shall we?"

"Haven't you got any pity for me?"

"One can't pity anyone who amuses one as much as you amuse me," I answered.

A spot of colour appeared on Louise's pale cheeks and though she smiled her eyes were hard and angry.

"Iris shall marry in a month's time," she said, "and if anything happens to me I hope you and she will be able to forgive yourselves."

Louise was as good as her word. A date was fixed, a rich trousseau was ordered, and invitations were sent. Iris and the lad were very happy. On the wedding-day, at ten o'clock in the morning, Louise, that devilish woman, had one of her heart attacks — and died. She died gently forgiving Iris for having killed her.



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