Поиск

Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
везде
только в названии
только в тексте
Выводить:
описание
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Иностранный язык->Реферат
“Фразеология составляет яркую и национально-своеобразную часть языковой картины мира. В связи с повышением интереса лингвистов к языковой картине мира...полностью>>
Иностранный язык->Реферат
Язык – это целый мир со свойственной ему структурой, системой ценностей, проблемами и переживаниями. Пословицы и поговорки, фразеологизмы, неологизмы,...полностью>>
Иностранный язык->Реферат
Актуальность работы обусловлена тем, что представления человека об окружающем его мире, в частности о природе, формируют глубинную основу системы его ...полностью>>
Иностранный язык->Реферат
The connection between language and culture ha been considered by many scholars, and at present it has become an aziom that national culture manifests...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Иностранный язык

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF

THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

THE MOSCOW POWER ENGINEERING INSTITUTE

(TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY)

The Institute of Linguistics

Department of Applied Linguistics and Translation Techniques

DIPLOMA PAPER

Speciality: Translation and Translation Techniques

Subject: “The Role of Grammatical Transformations While Translating

(based on “For Whom The Bell Tolls” by Ernest Hemingway)”

Performed by: Druzhinin Nikita

Supervisor: Dorohina M. .

Moscow 2009

Contents

Abstract (English/Russian)

2

Introduction

3

Chapter 1

7

1.1.

Overview of Basic Terminology and Aims

7

1.2.

Levels of analysis and synthesis in translation

9

1.3.

Preserving the meaning structure of the source text

10

1.4.

Author’s Style and Its Significance for Translation

11

Chapter 2

17

2.1.

Lexical Transformations

17

2.2.

Morphological Transformations

25

2.2.1.

Article

25

2.2.1.1.

Indefinite Article

26

2.2.1.2.

Definite Article

27

2.2.2.

Unconformity of the Category of Number

28

2.2.3.

Grammatical Gender

29

2.2.4.

Change of Parts of Speech

30

2.2.5.

Unconformity of the Tense

32

2.3.

Syntactical transformations

34

2.3.1.

Transposition of sentence members

34

2.3.2.

Transformation of Simple Sentence into Complex Sentence

35

2.3.3.

Transformation of Complex Sentence into Simple Sentence

36

2.3.4.

Sentence Fragmentation

39

2.3.5.

Sentence Integration

40

2.3.6.

Transformation of Two-Member Sentence into a Mononuclear Sentence

41

2.3.7.

Transformation of the Type of Syntactic Cohesion

42

2.3.8.

Change of Actual Sentence Fragmentation During Translation

43

2.4.

Summary on Different Types of Transformations

47

2.4.1.

Table on General Types of Transformations

53

Conclusion

55

Bibliography

59

Abstract

The present thesis focuses on the Role of Grammatical Transformations on the basis of the novel “For Whom The Bell Tolls” by Ernest Hemingway. It comprises the introductory part, three subject chapters – lexical, morphological and grammatical transformations, and the conclusion.

Chapter 1 overviews basic terminology and aims of the thesis and refers to the works of such scholars as Matuzkova E.P., Shekhovtseva M.D., Frolov A.A., Shveitser L.D., Levitskaya T.R., Fiterman A.M., Barhudarov L.S., Komissarov V.K., Vinogradov V.S., and Arturo Pascual. The first chapter outlines the scheme of the following chapter defining levels of analysis in translation.

Chapter 2 begins with highlighting the importance of preserving the structure of the source text and induces explanation of the author’s literary style whose novel laid the basis of the thesis practical parts. The chapter involves practical research of three types of transformations. Each subdivision on transformation type points out the most typical transformations as in translation practice as in the understudied novel in particular. The chapter ends with the table containing the most typical transformation with certain examples.

The conclusion underlines the result of the research carried out. It defines the main role of transformations techniques and marks the reason for those transformations.

Introduction

Translation implies correct and comprehensive rendering what is expressed in one language by means of the other language. [4] The present work is focused on the grammatical transformations that are vital while converting linguistic units of the source text into the text of the target language.

According to the definition by V.N. Komissarov, literary translation is such a kind of translation, which is supposed to create a literary text in the target language and influence the reader emotionally and aesthetically. For this reason a lot of critics believe that the literary translation is a piece of art, which is dominated by masters only who follow only aesthetic criteria while making a translation. The reasons mentioned afore give the ground to consider the literary translation to be as a linguistic phenomenon as a literary one. Literary translation is not supposed to give exact translation of the original text but to render the meaning and the message in order to make the translated text more artistic. [5]

The present thesis is focused on the matter of grammatical transformations and in particular their role in translation of any text whether it be literary work or text of business and technical contents. Relevance of the thesis concerns the fact that grammatical transformations are an inseparable part while translating a text of any complexity. While translation, the first mean that a translator employs is grammatical transformation, thus, converting the sentence of the source language into the sentence of the target language. Nowadays quality of translation faces high standards. That’s why analysis of different aspects of translation is vital in order to perfect translation techniques and mastering translator’s skills. The notion of Russian English is rather well known among translators and people who deal with translation. Russian English is considered as a kind of translation drawback. As soon as polemics on Russian English appeared, translators of the country started to pay more attention to the quality of translations and the ways of getting rid of Russian English manner of translating, which implies overuse of Russian grammatical constructions while translating into English and few transformations. That is exactly the reason why consideration of all possible grammatical transformations is so vital to advance and perfect translator’s skills. But it is necessary to study out the essence and the notion of grammatical transformations and what aspects are associated with it.

The matter is that the internal structure of the original language and the target language may differ considerably. Thus, grammatical transformations are very crucial in this respect. These differences of the languages are the main reason of grammatical transformations. Such differences can be partial or absolute. Absolute differences can be observed when the Russian language lacks a grammatical form, which is present in the English language, or on the contrary. There are cases when a grammatical category of one language is broader than that of the other. Sometimes when the principal parts of the sentence are replaced, the complete grammatical transformation takes place. When the subordinate parts of the sentence are replaced, here we have partial grammatical transformation. But more often these kinds of transformation take place simultaneously. It is worth mentioning that there are cases when one or another grammatical category is present in both languages but does not coincide in all forms.

According to Chernyakhovskaya L.A., different syntax of Russian and English is one of the major reasons for grammatical transformations. In addition, different linguistic means emphasize the communicative message of the sense-groups, which employ various parts of the sentence. So, the English subject, which is usually in the beginning of the sentence, confers less communicative message in comparison with that of the final parts of the sentence. This phenomenon is associated with theme and rheme in terms of translation, in particular, in English-Russian translation. So, semantic word order coincides with syntactic division of the sentence into the subject and the predicate (the subject is theme, the predicate is rheme) concerning rise of the communicative message. It is the factor, which is the reason for syntactic transformations while translating from Russian into English and backwards. For instance, the Russian thematic group that has free syntax is translated as the subject into English; this transformation helps to keep the message of the sense group. While translating it is necessary to bear in mind that an English speaking reader intuitively perceives the beginning of the sentence as the nucleolus information.

Grammatical features of linguistic units involve a range of linguistic phenomena: word form, word combination, sentence, word order, grammatical meaning of forms, context functions of forms and meanings. When translating, one should take into account not only the message that a linguistic unit communicates but also its grammatical features, which can influence considerably the structure of the whole sentence being translated.

One should consider all the factors, which can influence the use of grammatical transformations:

  • Syntactic function of the sentence;

  • Lexical background, and lexical contents:

  • The way of implying the message:

  • Context (background) of the sentence;

  • Expressive and stylistic function.

Due to the logical structure of the sentence, a translator should not only change but also sometimes keep the foreign construction when it concerns exact rendering of the logical stress of the message. Contextual background of the sentence may also require its grammatical transformation. Such examples can be observed mostly while translating English period and a range of sentences beginning with one and the same personal pronoun.

Translation transformations are subdivided into lexical and grammatical ones according to units of the source language that are considered as initial units in the process of transformation.

A translator very often starts translation with a word, in particular, with changing its form that is why the issues of word formation, creation of new words, are of special importance for the process of translation.

The necessity or importance of grammatical transformations has certain consequences. Abundant transformation causes free translation resulting in misinterpretation, incomprehensibility and artificial style. On the other hand, lack of translation transformations results in over-literal rendering. L.K. Latyshev defined the subject as follows: “ A translator who does not have enough experience in translating may carry to excess in two ways: the first is literal copying of the source text stemmed from unclear understanding of what is exact translation; and the second is extremely free translation with great number of unreasoned transformations as a result of avoiding literalism. In terms of Grammar understanding the sentence is to identify it with an appropriate pattern or a model. In other words, it means understanding the way that sentence is made up”. [17]

The matter of word-formation techniques and transformations is considered in linguistics concerning translations of scientific and socio-political texts. It mostly concerns the fact that new formations are typical of the above listed genres (different types of neologisms, for instance). In this regard there is not much attention paid to the peculiarities of word building transformations while translating a literary work.

The subject of the research is the role of grammatical transformations, classification of the basic word-building, morphological and syntactical transformations in translation from the Source language (English) into the Target Language (Russian), pointing out typical difficulties to achieve equivalent translation and, if possible, finding the ways of achieving it, frequency of using certain grammatical transformations and defining their role in translation, in particular, in the literary text to render the author’s style and emotional background of the literary work, etc.

The main way of solving the problem set is comparative and contrastive method and analysis of translator’s decisions with contextual background taken into account. The basic material of the present thesis is the novel “For Whom the Bell Tolls” by Ernest Hemingway.

The purposes determined the structure of the thesis. It includes the introductory part, three chapters with thematic sections and the conclusion.

Chapter 1



Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. The language of advertising

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... prompt spelling, grammatical solecism, metaphor and paradox are some of the aspects linked ... products. The first rule of parity involves the Alice in Wonderland use of the words ... which is capable of transforming the language of objects to that of people, and ...
  2. Translation of Irony

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... functionaries responsible for the preservation and dissemination of the national heritage. The role of such a class ... of translation of irony: 1) Full translation with slight lexical and grammatical transformations only in cases when the ...
  3. History Of Communication Media Essay Research Paper

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... of memory performance, degrees of grammatical analysability, the possibilities of ... the commands of water allocation and the harvesting of products.18 The same cities that translated the ... the oft-quoted structural transformation from the aristocratic to the ...
  4. French borrowings in the english language

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... the language of the royal court, the legal system and the church. The use of ... translated into English. Towards the end of the 14th c. the English language had taken the place of ... the Latin,while the shorter has suffered a French transformation. When in the ...
  5. Methods and Principles of Teaching Vocabulary

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... and grammatical structure. They have the opportunity to ask questions as well as ... . Role of the teacher is very traditional - teacher is the authority. The major characteristic of the grammar-translation ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0016272068023682