Поиск

Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
везде
только в названии
только в тексте
Выводить:
описание
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
The definition of rhetoric is as simple as the art of persuasion, but what makes rhetoric effective is the way it is applied. In order to use rhetoric...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
The main protagonist, or main character in a story, changes his/her characters and beliefs throughout the many different trials that they persevere th...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
The graveyard at the start of the book is typical example of how the setting contributes so well to the story and the atmosphere, this is just one of ...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
alcoholism ALCOHOLISM Alcoholism is perhaps the most common form of drug abuse in America today. In 1995, in the United States 67% of all the populati...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Sophocles and Aristotle: The Rules of Writing

Writing, particularly story writing, is an art. When a person sets out to create a painting, there are certain rules of composition that need to be followed. In the art of writing, it is the same. There are rules of composition for writing and they must be followed by the writer. Some of these rules date back to Aristotle, who set down some rules for classical drama in his Poetics, a collection of class notes in which Aristotle attempted “to treat of Poetry in itself and of its various kinds” (1028). These rules, adhered to by great writers for centuries, were preceded by at least one great classical work: Sophocles’ Oedipus the King. Interestingly, even though Oedipus the King came before Poetics, Sophocles’ play illustrates Aristotle’s rules for classical drama. Oedipus the King particularly displays a tragic emotion, a tragic character, and a tragic fall according to Aristotle’s rules.

Aristotle says that a tragedy should “imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation” (1036). There is certainly little as pitiful as Jocasta’s anguish as she begins to suspect the truth about the man she has loved (Sophocles 1317-1342). Of course, the most profoundly pathetic scene in Oedipus the King occurs off stage, in the bed chamber of the King and Queen. There, as described by the servant, Oedipus discovers Jocasta’s body where she hung herself from a rafter. He then takes the broaches from Jocasta’s dress and stabs his eyes with the sharp pins on the back of the broaches, over and over until his eyes were pulp (1600-1637). This is certainly sufficient to, in Aristotle’s words, “excite pity” (1036).

Aristotle also describes a tragic character, a hero of sorts who is a good and virtuous person, but who destroys himself by a particular flaw or error (1036). In Oedipus the King, Oedipus is just such a character. He is described in glowing terms as “more like a god than any man alive” (66). He is called “greater than any man” (52). He exclaims “nothing can dishonor me, ever” (1355-1356). Yet he is condemned to murder his father and to sleep with his mother (1481-1484). He has attempted to escape his fate, as his parents attempted to escape theirs, and in doing so he has made that fate possible. He has cursed himself unwittingly, his own father’s killer (316-343). He has, in a fit of anger, cried “Damn my own good!” (1334). Inadvertently, that is precisely what he has done. But because he has done it inadvertently he is not an evil character, he simply fits Aristotle’s idea of a tragic character.

Aristotle also writes that such a drama ought to have a change “accompanied by …a reversal, or by recognition, or by both” (1035). The change in Oedipus the King is obviously Oedipus’ fall from a position of power and respect to a pathetic blind cripple. It is, as Aristotle says it should be, a change “not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad” (1037). The change in Oedipus the King is, as Aristotle says it should be, accompanied by a reversal and a recognition (1035). The reversal occurs when the messenger comes to relieve Oedipus of his fears of the curse, but his revelation that Oedipus isn’t Polybos’ son causes Oedipus to realize his guilt instead (1187-1312). The recognition occurs when Oedipus recognizes Jocasta, the woman he loves, as his mother and the man that he killed as his father (1478-1484). This fulfills Aristotle’s ideal of a change, a reversal, and a recognition.

As shown by these examples, Oedipus the King illustrates Aristotle’s rules for classical drama. Although Oedipus the King came before Aristotle’s Poetics, it still holds to the same principles. Perhaps the truest rules for the art of writing were there before Poetics, or before any such set of rules was written out. Perhaps the rules are set into the way the human mind works. Nevertheless, Aristotle’s Poetics is a reliable guide, and one that the great classics follow, regardless of which came first.

Aristotle. Poetics. Literature of the Western world. Ed. D. Anthony English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992. 1028-1043.

Sophocles. Oedipus the King. Literature of the Western world. Ed. D. Anthony English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992. 719-767.


Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. Antigone And 91101 Essay Research Paper Sophocles

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Antigone And 9-11-01 Essay, Research Paper Sophocles was well-versed in Tragedy, and these days everyone ... major purposes and functions of a Greek Tragedy, according to Aristotle anyway. The ... have in common. And I was expecting this paper to be short. 32e
  2. Oedipus Essay Research Paper Sophocles is perhaps

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Oedipus Essay, Research Paper Sophocles is perhaps one of the greatest tragedians ever. Sophocles said that ... figure’s ruin. Aristotle explains that a tragic character is just and good, but ...
  3. Aristotelian Tragedy Essay Research Paper One may

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Aristotelian Tragedy Essay, Research Paper One may argue that the Greek playwright, Sophocles modeled his ... Rex on Aristotle’s definition and analysis of tragedy. Since according to Aristotle’s definition ...
  4. Antigone Vs Billy Budd Essay Research Paper

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... . Billy Budd Essay, Research Paper Antigone Vs. Billy Budd In Poetics, Aristotle explains tragedy ... a language in both verse and song. Aristotle’s definition is clearly applicable to ... ’s Billy Budd and the famous Greek tragedy Antigone by Sophocles. Antigone is ...
  5. Oedipus A Tragic Hero Essay Research Paper

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Essay, Research Paper According to Aristotle Oedipus from the play ?Oedipus Rex? by Sophocles ... century after Sophocles the philosopher Aristotle analyzed tragedy and included it ... great and glorious without being preeminently just and virtuous, and just ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0025169849395752