Поиск

Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
везде
только в названии
только в тексте
Выводить:
описание
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
In my seventeen years, I’ve heard the saying “the truth hurts” more times than I can count. I agree with this statement, for I believe my greatest mom...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Imperialism is the pursuit of colonial empires. Many countries took part in this, but none quite like the United States. The motivation that the Unite...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Some believe life was simpler when women were kept pregnant in the winter and barefoot in the summer. But if you think about it, American women have a...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Scientific method is the way scientists learn and study the world around them. It is the process by which scientists work over a period of time to con...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

In Dante’s Inferno, Dante narrates his descent and observation of hell through the various circles and pouches. One part of this depiction is his descriptions of the various punishments that each of the different sinners has received.

The various punishments that Dante envisions the sinners receiving are broken down into two types. The first type he borrows from various gruesome and cruel forms of torture and the second type, though often less physically agonizing, is Dante’s creative and imaginative punishment for sins. The borrowed torturous forms of punishments create a physical pain for the shades, whereas the creative punishments are used to inflict a mental and psychological suffering. However, it is possible for the creative punishments to inflict both a mental and physical pain upon the sinner.

Several punishments that Dante envisions for the various sinners are borrowed from forms of torture. The first physical punishment Dante borrows from that is his punishment for the heretics. The penalty in the medieval era for heresy was often public humiliation or to burn to death. For Dante, to be a heretic was to follow one’s own opinion and not the beliefs of the Christian Church. Dante’s punishment for the “arch heretics and those who followed them” was that they be “ensepulchered” and to have some tombs “heated more, some less.” Since the archheretics believed that everything died with the body and that there was no soul, Dante not only punishes them with the hot and crowded tombs, but he punishes them with their beliefs and lets them feel what it is like to die. This punishment by Dante is one in which he was more focused on inflicting a physical pain rather than a mental one.

Although he uses various torturous practices in The Inferno in order to inflict physical agony, Dante does, sometimes, use famous acts of cruelty to punish the sinners. One such punishment is that which Dante borrows from Emperor Frederick II. Frederick II was well known for his lead capes with which he punished criminals. Dante places all of the hypocrites in “gilded” cloaks that “dazzled; but inside they were all of lead, so heavy that Frederick’s capes were straw compared to them.” Dante uses this analogy to Frederick to demonstrate the extent of cruelty of his cloaks in The Inferno. The way that Dante compares one of the most evil punishments to those in his Inferno effectively demonstrates how horrible Hell truly is. Although this punishment for the hypocrites is quite physically painful, it contains a rather brilliant metaphor. For Dante, the hypocrites were those who were seemingly virtuous and good, but beneath their facades they were quite sinful. The cloaks are a metaphor for the hypocrites’ characters: dazzling on the surface and cloaked in lead or sin underneath.

These examples of punishment that are physically painful are only some of the punishments that Dante borrows from forms of torture. Dante also creates more original punishments for other sinners. It is possible for some of the creative punishments to inflict both a physical and psychological suffering.

One of Dante’s most ingenious punishments are those for the avaricious and the prodigal. The avaricious sinners are those who were miserly on earth, and the prodigal were squanderers. Dante’s punishment for them is one of the avaricious sinners was to be paired with a prodigal sinner. Then, the two individuals would roll the weights around in a semi-circle until “they [the weights] struck each other; at that point, each turned around and, wheeling back those weights, [cried] out: ‘Why do you hoard? Why do you squander?’” These sinners are condemned to forever roll these weights back and forth and yell at each other every time the weights collide. These punishments involve no real physical torment other than pushing the weights; therefore, the punishment is designed primarily as a mental torture. He condemns these sinners, whom are traditionally bullheaded and stubborn, to mutual antagonism. This punishment is brilliant because these sinners, who committed no physical harm or sin, merely a mental one, are tortured only psychologically and not physically.

This idea of punishment as a counter penalty for one’s actions is discussed by one of the victims of the most gruesome and horrifying of all of the creative punishments that Dante envisions. Bertran de Born, one of the sowers of discord and scandal, was an advisor to a “fledgling king” and because he gave bad advice and “made the son and father enemies”, he is condemned to walk about with his head “carried by the hair just like a lantern.” In a discussion with Dante at the end of Canto 28, Bertran reveals to Dante the “law of counter penalty” as the guiding principle for the punishments in The Inferno. In Bertran’s case since he severed the ties between father and son, his head will be severed from his body. This punishment is especially gruesome and physically cruel, but psychologically it is quite ingenious: Since Bertran severed affectionate ties, his head must forever be severed. The similarity between punishment and sin is not only what makes these punishments so compelling and interesting, but also what allows Dante to show his creativity in his punishments.


Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. The Inferno Essay Research Paper In Dante

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    The Inferno Essay, Research Paper In Dante s Inferno, Dante narrates his descent and observation ... torturous practices in The Inferno in order to inflict physical agony, Dante does, sometimes ... of his cloaks in The Inferno. The way that Dante compares one of ...
  2. Dantes Inferno Essay Research Paper Dante s

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Dantes Inferno Essay, Research Paper Dante s Inferno Dante Alighieri, one of the greatest ... before his death in 1321, while in exile. In this work, Dante introduces his ... and walk in the ways of the Lord, which makes Dante s Inferno, a religious ...
  3. Inferno Essay Research Paper The Inferno the

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Inferno Essay, Research Paper The Inferno, the first part of Dante Alighieri’s poem, The Divine Comedy, ... approaches to human transgressions. Dante’s vision in The Inferno expresses his personal experience ...
  4. Dante And His Inferno Essay Research Paper

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Dante And His Inferno Essay, Research Paper Dante And His Inferno Dante Alighieri, one of the greatest ... with lyrics. In 1274, during his adolescence, Dante fell in love with a beautiful ... Paris and Oxford before settling in Ravenna in 1319. It is believed ...
  5. Dante Inferno Essay Research Paper Dante Alighieri

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Dante Inferno Essay, Research Paper Dante Alighieri s Divine Comedy is said ... poem. One monster, in particular, provokes a great fear in Dante when the need ... Dante Alighieri s incredible journey through The Inferno, fear plays an important role in ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0015890598297119