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ЛИНГВОГУМАНИТАРНЫЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЯ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«МИНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

ЗВУКОБУКВЕННЫЕ СООТВЕТСТВИЯ

В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Практикум

Минск, 2008

Pronunciation and Spelling in English

Self-study and classroom use

СОСТАВИТЕЛИ: Гуринович Е. А., преподаватель практической фонетики;

Кучерчук Ю. В., преподаватель практической фонетики.

Практикум предназначен для учащихся лингвогуманитарного колледжа.

Данные материалы включают теоретические сведения о звукобуквенных соответствиях в английском языке, упражнения для совершенствования навыков чтения, а также материалы для чтения и заучивания наизусть. Материалы могут быть использованы как для аудиторной, так и самостоятельной работы учащихся.

Рассмотрено и одобрено на заседании ПЦК практической фонетики.

Протокол № 3 от 14 октября 2008 года.



  1. The Syllable. The Principles of Syllable Division

The nature of the syllable

Syllable formation in English is based on the phonological opposition vowel-consonant. Vowels are usually syllabic while consonants are not with the exceptions of [l], [m], [n], which become syllabic in final position preceded by a consonant or between two final consonants: bottle [|bɒtl], bottom [|bɒtm], button [|bʌtn].

A syllable is a speech unit which consists of a sound or a group of sounds one of which is heard more prominent than the others. This sound is the peak or the nucleus of the syllable and is called syllabic (vowels and sonorants are usually syllabic).

The English language has developed the closed type of a syllable as the fundamental one while in Russian it is the open type that forms the basis of syllable formation.

The other aspect of this component is syllable division. There is a problem of syllable division in case of intervocalic consonants and their clusters, like in such words as city, extra, standing and others.

Let us consider the word extra. There are two syllables but where should the boundary between them fall?

  1. [e-kstrə]. It is unlike that people would opt for a division between [e] and [kstrə] because there are no words in English which begin with consonant sequence [kstr].

  2. Similarly, a division between [ekstr] and [ə] would be unnatural.

  3. [ek-strə], [eks-trə], [ekst-rə] are possible. People usually prefer either of the first two options here, but there is no obvious way of deciding between them.

In some cases we may take into account the morphemic structure of words. For example, standing consists of two syllables; on phonemic grounds [|stæn-dIŋ], on grammatical grounds [|stænd-Iŋ].

Syllable division rules for simple words and parts

of compound words

Vowel

Intersyllabic sounds

Boundary

Examples

Notes

I. Short stressed

a) single consonant

within the consonant

[le ən]

[ m]

b) consonant cluster

between the consonants

[ek1|s2|t3|rə]

[wın|dəυ]

[rıŋ|kl]

In case of intervocalic clusters we use the distributional criterion: the combination of consonants belongs to the following syllable, if such combinations are typical of English.

II. Short unstressed, long, diphthong

a) single consonant

before the consonant

[melə|dı]

[k:|nə]

[ leı|bl]

b) consonant cluster

maximally close to the vowel

[ə|dres]

[ık|spektıd]

[fα:|stə]

[peı|trən]

! The so-called thriphthongs in English are disyllabic combinations, because they contain two vowel phonemes: [ faI |ə].

Ex. 1.1 ( , track 1)

How many syllables?

One word in each set has a different number of syllables from the others. Decide which it is, then check with the recording.

Example:

lengths

if

table

on

1

destiny

chocolate

computer

afterwards

2

stopped

smashed

wanted

tried

3

Leicester

Lester

Stratford

Manchester

4

altogether

avocado

banana

Argentina

5

rhythm

chasm

through

thorough

Ex. 1.2 ( , track 1)

What stress pattern?

One word in each set has a different stress pattern from the others. Which is it? Define the type of the stressed word. Check with the recording.

Example:

picture ○

nature ○

capture ○

mature ○

1

politics

dynamic

musician

historic

2

create

supply

prostate

dictate

3

teacher

refer

eager

offer

4

edit

debit

submit

credit

5

Angela

Therese

spaghetti

banana

Ex.1.3 Transcribe and divide into syllables.

Determine where the syllable boundary lies

1.

goodness

5.

about

9.

Saturday

2.

hotter

6.

lazy

10.

export

3.

village

7.

family

11.

hourly

4.

cotton

8.

admission

12.

mathematics

Ex. 1.4 Transcribe the following words, divide them into syllables and explain the rule

1.

ninety

6.

sentence

2.

middle

7.

vowel

3.

imitate

8.

cinema

4.

teacher

9.

expensive

5.

advertise

10.

commission

Ex. 1.5 Divide the words into syllables and explain the rule in each line:

1) Ready, pocket, mother, coffee, city;

2) Bottle, couple, cattle, mitten, middle;

3) Breakfast, hedgehog, doctor, country, fifty;

4) Farmer, herself, sleepy, ninety, gloomy;

5) Extreme, abrupt, include, nasty, attract;

6) Fire, towel, vowel, lower, goer.

  1. The Primary and the Secondary Meaning of Letters

In English one letter can denote a few different sounds (polysemantic letters). That’s why there are the primary and the secondary sound meanings of them. The primary meaning of a letter is the sound which this letter:

  1. denotes in the alphabet: a – [eI], e – [i:]. E.g. bake, be;

  2. doesn’t correspond to the alphabetical letter: a – [æ]. e.g. cat;

  3. approximates the alphabetical letter: f[f], y – [aI].

The secondary meaning of a letter is the one which differs from its primary alphabetical meaning and depends on the consonants preceding or following this letter. E.g. a – [ a:] - staff, [o ] – wander, [ɔ:] – war.

The sound formation of the English language distinguishes long and short vowels. According to this peculiarity in English each stressed vowel can have two meanings: alphabetical (long) and short.

READING OF VOWELS IN STRESSED SYLLABLES

Letter

Primary meaning

Secondary meaning

long

short

Vowel + r

Vowel +re

a

Kate

cat

car

hare

e

he, Pete

hen, help

her

here

i\y

I, Mike, mine

sit, gym

bird, Byrd

hire, tyre

o

no, stone

not

for

more

u

use

but

turn

cure

  1. The Primary Sound Meanings of Vowels in Different Types of Syllables

In disyllabic and polysyllabic words the vowel letter has its alphabetical (long) primary meaning if:

  1. it is used in word final position e. g. he, no, my;

  2. it is separated from the following vowel letter or from the combinations –le, -re by only one consonant letter e.g. pilot, idle, fibre;

  3. it is followed by a consonant + r +vowel e.g. library, April;

  4. in some vowel combinations* e.g. diet, going.

The vowel letter has its short primary meaning:

  1. if it is separated from the following vowel or the combination –le by two or more consonants e.g. render, silly, fiddle.

  2. if the vowel letter (apart from “u”) is in the third stressed syllable from the end e.g. family, cylinder; but: funeral;

  3. if the vowel letter is followed by a single letter “v” e.g. river, never; but: uvula [\ju:vju:lə], fever [\fi:və], over [\əυvə];

  4. if the vowel letter is followed by a consonant and one of the combinations, such as –-ic, -ish, -ity e.g. tragic, polish, cavity;

  5. in disyllabic words with the sound [I] and [ju:] in the last unstressed syllable the vowel letter of a stressed syllable has a short meaning: e.g. tribune, facet; but: stupid.

But if the word ends in –y, -ie as in the words ladies, Edie the letters “a”, “e” have their alphabetical (long) meaning.

*For more information about the rules of reading of vowel combinations (digraphs), see further rules.

READING SINGLE VOWEL LETTERS IN STRESSED NON-FINAL SYLLABLES

Meaning

Spelling

Examples

Exceptions

I. Primary

long

1) vowel + vowel

diet

2) vowel + consonant + vowel vowel + consonant + “r” + vowel

vowel + consonant + “le”

vowel + consonant + “re”

pilot

library

idle

fibre

II. Primary

short

1) vowel + consonant cluster + vowel

vowel + consonant cluster +“le”

Render

fiddle

2) vowel + consonant + “ic”

vowel + consonant + “ish”

vowel + consonant + “ity”

tragic

polish

cavity

3) vowel + “v” + vowel

never

∙fever

∙over

∙uvula

4) vowel + syllable + syllable

fa∙mi∙ly

cases with “u”:

funeral

5) vowel + [ı]-closed syllable

vowel + [(j)u:]-closed syllable

fa∙cet

tri∙bune

stupid

Ex. 3.1 ( , track 2)

Read the following names and decide, from their spelling, if the vowel is short or long. (If there is more than one vowel, focus on the vowel receiving most stress.) If you are not sure, check the recording.

Example: Mick = short Susan = long

Mick

Susan

Dean

Sammy

Cathy

Martha

Jane

Luke

Tammy

Rose

Bert

Muriel

Patty

Pete

Ross

Ted

David

Becky

Bud

Simon

Beth

Mike

Mary

Tom

Jean

Timmy

Joan

Bonnie

Sheila

Bill

Primary short meaning

Primary long meaning

Ex. 3.2 Read these words according to the rules:

Letter “A” (primary short and long meanings):

barrel

gas

bat

land

shall

angry

cab

bag

band

marry

tangle

fat

tan

pack

cattle

back

has

sand

dad

carry

sail

brain

paper

baby

lady

main

able

bacon

wait

parade

famous

mate

lain

pain

fate

Letter “E” (primary short and long meanings):

best

clever

led

met

peck

bell

seven

set

beg

shell

send

very

men

lend

merry

berry

when

pen

bend

kettle

he

we

these

agree

evening

she

be

me

even

deep

Letters “I/Y” (primary short and long meanings):

thimble

thin

chips

wish

wiggle

scribble

twin

little

picnic

fiddle

kitchen

history

ministry

primitive

system

why

mine

vice

imply

rise

idle

license

while

by

fly

nylon

byre

rhyme

arrive

bicycle

triangle

line

kite

file

white

why

mine

vice

imply

Letter “U” (primary short and long meanings):

crumple

under

humble

hungry

duck

must

funny

ugly

begun

thus

thunder

bungle

buck

lust

fuss

yuck

cluck

bud

puck

luck

tube

duty

dual

music

tune

computer

tune

muse

humour

unit

use

student

human

cube

tunic

Letter “O” (primary short and long meanings):

dot

stop

chop

flop

cost

doctor

bottle

body

robber

coffee

promise

fox

cod

shot

stock

con

cock

cop

wop

doll

so nose

go probe

phone open

hope

rose

joke

note

whole

quote

tone

hole

drove

Ex. 3.3

A: Here are the twelve pairs of rhyming words. In each case, one has an expected spelling for the particular sound and one has not. Choose which has the more predictable spelling.

Example: cheque neck

(compare neck with peck, deck, wreck, speck and so on)

1

dome

some

5

rich

stitch

9

file

style

2

mash

cache

6

chest

breast

10

taste

waist

3

steak

make

7

wand

bond

11

want

pant

4

moon

prune

8

blood

mud

12

cut

put

Ex. 3.4 ( , track 3)

A: In this section the spelling is 100% predictable from the pronunciation. Listen to the recording and write these individual words down.

1

________

5

________

9

________

13

________

2

________

6

________

10

________

14

________

3

________

7

________

11

________

15

________

4

________

8

________

12

________

16

________

B: Now see if you can read the following words aloud before you listen to them on the recording. Remember that the pronunciation is still predictable from the spelling.

1

scoop

5

patched

9

puddle

13

shun

2

muted

6

rotter

10

stutter

14

candle

3

glitch

7

hugged

11

handy

15

rumbled

4

spine

8

treck

12

budge

16

trash

C: Now do the same with the following nonsense words.

1

flape

5

snork

9

frake

13

spump

2

spline

6

preck

10

drumble

14

flinge

3

smotted

7

glumpy

11

duddle

15

chinker

4

gatter

8

chandy

12

shunker

16

strended

It doesn’t matter if you don’t know what the words in A and B mean; you can always check them in a dictionary afterwards. Don’t look in a dictionary for the nonsense words in C.

Ex. 3.5 Find and practice reading vowels in their short meanings:

Letter” A”

a) Read as quickly as possible:

A cat, a black cat, a black cat sat, a black cat sat on a mat, a black cat sat on a mat and ate. A black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat.

b) Read the sentence:

There was a red van traveling West, and several cars and vans behind it. The van driver suddenly turned and crashed into the taxi. The taxi driver wasn’t badly hurt, but he was very angry.

Can you imagine an imaginary menagerie manager, imagining an imagery menagerie.

c) Proverbs and idioms:

Flat as a pancake.

A hungry man is an angry man.

d) Rhymes and tongue-twisters:

Pat’s black cat is in Pat’s black hat.

Pussy-cat, pussy-cat

Can you catch that bad fat rat?

If you catch that bad fat rat,

You will have some milk for that.

Letter “E”

a) Hens, red hens, best red hens, ten best red hens, Ted sells ten best red hens. Every day Ted sells ten best red hens.

b) Only ten per cent of Kensington Express readers take regular exercise. Ten per cent felt that they were healthy or very healthy.

c) All’s well that ends well.

d) Better late than never.

e) Lesser leather never weathered wetter weather better.

f) Fred fed Ted bread and Ted led Fred bread.

g) Can you retell ten texts in twelve seconds?

Letters “I, Y”

a) As fit as a fiddle.

b)Which witch wished which wicked wish?

c) Needles and pins, needles and pins,

When a man marries, his trouble begins.

d) I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.

Letter “O”

a) Bob’s dog got a hot pot of porridge and some chops.

b) I’ve got a job in a sports shop at the moment.

c) Honesty is the best policy.

d) A proper cup of coffee from a proper copper coffee pot.

Letter “U”

a) A duck, an ugly duck, an ugly duck was in a cup, an ugly duck was in a funny cup, an ugly duck was in a funny cup on Sunday. An ugly duck was in a funny cup on a sunny Sunday.

b) Lucky in cards unlucky in love.

c) Mummies munch much mush.

d) Double bubble gum bubbles double bubbles.

Ex. 3.6 Practice reading vowels in their long meanings:

Letter “A”a) This amazing lake in Wales is a famous place for great races.

b) I can explain. The Daily Mail came late.

c) Make hay while the sun shines.

A stitch in time saves nine.

d) Rain, rain, go away,

Come again another day.

e) Billy, Billy, come and play

While the sun shines bright today.

Letter “E”

a) A man of words and not of deeds

Is like a garden full of weeds.

b) He speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.

c) Easy come easy go.

Letters “I, Y”

a) Mike likes spicy pies with fried pike.

b) Hi, Mike! I’m busy typing. I have ninety-nine pages to type by Friday.

c) Out of sight out of mind.

Variety is a spice of life.

d) Why do you cry, Willy?

Why do you cry?

Why, Willy, why, Willy?

Why, Willy, why?

Letter “O”

a) The road below goes from Rome to the south coast. We are very close to our home.

b) Chip-chop, chip-chop,

Chipper-chopper Joe,

One big blow.

Oh! My toe!

Ex. 3.7 Put the words given below into a suitable column according to the rules of reading of stressed vowels:

Twilight, crying, Friday, magic, transport, limit, fiddle, panic, student, trying, bypass, never, uncle, letter, river, alphabet, timid, numeral, being, stupid, apricot, atomic, cinema, majority, better, hunting, visit, novel, palace, luggage, sentence, alcoholic, beginner, British, cucumber, famine, forever, Labrador, laser, microphone, noble, novel, poet, printer, puritan, puzzle, regular, Roman, secret, stupidity, syllabic, typical.

Primary long meaning

Primary short meaning

Ex. 3.8 Read the following words and see how –e changes the pronunciation

WITHOUT –e:

WITH –e:

fat

cat

am

plan

hat

gate

late

name

plane

hate

NOW PRONOUNCE: man same take that lemonade bale safe tap tape

WITHOUT –e:

WITH –e:

sit

in

begin

if

swim

invite

fine

wine

wife

time

NOW PRONOUNCE: fit inside still mile hid ride tide like pipe strip

WITHOUT –e:

WITH –e:

stop

top

not

hot

clock

hope

home

note

nose

smoke

NOW PRONOUNCE: job stone rose God joke dome bone on spot coke

WITHOUT –e:

WITH –e:

bus

run

pub

sun

just

excuse

June

tube

rude

use

NOW PRONOUNCE: much fuse cube cub fuss tune gun fun duke luck

EXCEPTIONS: some come one have give live love

Ex. 3.9 Place the following words in the grids according to their vowel sound:

Rich, curl, month, cart, suit, breath, flashed, loom, herd, still, hemmed, torn, scene, cruise, floor, dock, just, don, sword, hoop, banned, rang, bin, love, hat, bird, stabbed, hood, farm, ought, ridge, ton, cloth, chalk, hoot, son, link, next, calm, germ, hymn, cab, wood, breath, creep, itch, blood, cough, should, could, black, said, foot, monk, dog, stood, piece, arch, move, purr, feast, palm, pearl, edge, shopped, eve, barred, soup, leaf, bard, begged.

Short vowel sounds

[I]

[æ]

[e]

[υ]

[o]

[Λ]

Long vowel sounds:

[i:]

[3:]

[ɑ:]

[o:]

[u:]

TEST I

  1. Divide into groups and transcribe these words:

Worry, student, apricot, oppose, novel, after, magic, limit, visit, excuse, sentence, bypass, money.

primary alphabetical meaning

primary short meaning

secondary meaning

  1. Find the odd word:

  1. little, silly, fiddle, middle, quite

  2. tragic, pathetic, paste, falls

  3. ruling, tulip, truthful, trustee, numeral

3. Transcribe these words:

Archery, point, cricket, victory, golf, runner-up, water polo, racket, rugby, swimming, championship, spectator.

TEST II

  1. Divide into groups and transcribe these words:

Cinema, never, crying, stupid, numeral, uncle, Monday, figure-skating, war, river, panic, staff, hunting, transport.

primary alphabetical meaning

primary short meaning

secondary meaning

  1. Find the odd word:

a) doing, hunting, uncle, cinema, magic

b) stupid, trying, Friday, April, silly

c) student, numeral, never, crying, being

3. Transcribe the words:

Fibre, April, going, render, family, avid, cavity, facet, lady, fever, over, funeral, fencing.

  1. Reading of Stressed Vowels in Combination with the Letter ”r”

VOWEL LETTERS + “R

vowel

+ “r” + vowel

+ vowel + ”r”

+ vowel + ”l/n”

+ “r” + consonant

+ final “r”

Aa

[εə]

fair, fare

[α:]

farm, far

Ee

[ıə]

here, hero, neon

[3:]

herbal, her

Ii

[aıə]

liar, fire, giant

[3:]

firm, fir

Oo

[:]

boar, more

[:]

north, for

Uu

[(j)υə]

pure, sure, fuel

[3:]

surf, fur

Yy

[aıə]

tyrant

[3:]

byrd

Ex. 4.1

a) Name the stressed sound of every line:

  1. share, rare, care, compare, prepare, hare.

  2. here, mere, sphere, material, serial, period.

  3. fire, lyre, hire, tired, wire, satire.

  4. pure, cure, lure, curious, during, secure.

  5. more, shore, explore, before, store.

b) Read these words according to the rules:

Letter “A” (primary short and long meanings):

farce

arch

scarf

market

alarm

jar

fare

Mary

daring

sharing

snare

care

Letter “E” (primary short and long meanings):

germ

perch

mercy

verse

concern

German

hero

mere

inhere

era

severe

zero

Letters “I/Y” (primary short and long meanings):

thirty

birch

smirch

shirk

circle

quirt

fire

lyre

tyre

require

wire

quire

Letter “U” (primary short and long meanings):

turn

further

lurch

Thursday

curtains

turkey

endure

cure

pure

obscure

fury

curious

Letter “O” (primary short and long meanings):

storm

mort

orchard

pork

force

thorn

core

shore

score

wore

oral

forehead

Ex.4.2

a) Make words with these beginnings and write them in the correct part of the table:

Beginnings ba fa ra da sta squa ca ha cha

Endings r re lf ir rd rt lm

Words with the vowel [α:]

Words with the vowel [εə]

bar

bare

b) Divide the words into groups according to the sounds:

Air, bear, deer, square, tour, real, giant, your, near, ear, pair, oar, more, secure, cure, fire, lure, lyre, pure, satire, board, fair, hair, hear, dear, tire, fuel, sore, our, area, near, pier, hour, fire, mere, real, diamond, ear, fierce, science, vary, zero, theory, fuel, ore, millionaire, lair, mere, where, trial, work, earn, sergeant, warm, worm, heart, world, merry, persuade, nurse, harp, early, scarcely, clerk, form, target, learn, hurry, bird, persue, war, firm, circus, turn, farm, earth, word, market, girl, fir, bargain, turkey, mortar, swirl, sword, order, urgently, orchid, appear, observe, persue, surface, disregard, perm, sardines, require, depart, quarrel.

Ex.4.3 Read as quickly as possible:

1. Hares, rare hares, take care of rare hares; my parents take care of rare hares. My parents rarely take care of rare hares and canaries.

2. Football, more than football, basketballs more than football, adore basketball more than football, boys adore basketball more than football, tall boys adore basketball more than football. Almost all tall boys adore basketball more than football.

3. The theory, the theory of this experienced engineer is clear, the theory of this experienced engineer is really clear. My dear! The theory of this experienced engineer is really clear.

4. Near an ear, a nearer ear, a nearly eerie ear.

5. Cheers, dear! Cheers! Here’s to the bearded mountaineer!

6. Charming, large and charming, farms are large and charming, gardens and farms are large and charming. The parks, gardens and farms are large and charming.

7. A girl, a circus girl, Pearl is a circus girl, Pearl is a circus girl who works, Pearl is a circus girl who works with birds.

8. Her work, her work in workshop, her work in a dirty workshop, her work in a dirty workshop was the worst. Her work in a dirty workshop was the worst in the world.

Ex. 4.4 Pick out the odd word:

  1. term, clerk, serve, perfect.

  2. target, farm, warm, market.

  3. learn, earth, pearl, heart.

  4. Vernon, terrible, merry, hurry.

  5. word, work, world, war.

  6. first, fur, far, turn.

  7. girl, shirk, wire, birch, birth.

  8. earn, learn, heart, early.

  9. worm, worn, world, work.

  10. nurse, lurk, hurry, hurt, suburb.

  11. advertisement, university, reserved, western.

Ex. 4.5 Put the words into three columns:

[ɑ:]

[ɔ:]

[з:]

Tardy, sort, purge, war, heart, dormant, world, port, darling, warm, earn, lord, work, partake, furbish, learn, mortify, clerk, purblind, portly, sergeant, dart, further, partner.

Ex. 4.6 Complete this conversation using the words in the box. Then listen and check

( , track 4)

Cars cares stars stares

Sid: This is a great life, with no worries or cares!

Joe: It would be nice if we had ________ though, Sid.

Sid: I didn’t say ______, I said ______!

Joe: Oh, I see. Not _______, as in traffic, but ______ with an ES at the end!

Sid: That’s right. I’ve always loved sleeping under the ______.

Joe: But why? There’ hardly any space under the ______!

Sid: No, not ______, ______! You know, little lights in the sky.

Joe: Oh, ______! I thought you said _________, that people walk up!

Ex. 4.7 Read and transcribe the following sentences:

  1. I’d like to reserve a seat on the ten-thirty flight to Birmingham, on Thursday. My name is Vernon.

  2. I’ll search under the fir trees and the birches, I’ll circle the earth – and I’ll return with a superb firm earthworm for my perfect turtledove.

  3. Pearl will be thirty next birthday. Her perfume from Germany is perfect.

  4. Gregory reported about this story with sarcasm, then he asked rhetorical question.

  5. I always think about misfortune with a horror.

  6. Barbara’s government had a very bad reputation.

  7. Sorry, but I don’t like horror films, I prefer going to the theatre.

Ex. 4.8 Listen and circle the word you hear ( , track 5)

Heart or hat? She put her hand on her heart\hat.

  1. Nowhere or no way? There’s nowhere\no way to go.

  2. Fair or far? It isn’t fair\far.

  3. Part or port? This is the main part\port of Athens.

  4. Bear or beer? That’s a strong bear\beer.

  5. Come or calm? She told me to come\calm down.

Ex. 4.9 Practice reading

idioms, sayings:

He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.

If the cap fits, wear it.

Here today, gone tomorrow.

Five fat friars frying fish.

While there is life there is hope.

No smoke without fire.

Real weird rear wheels.

First come, first served.

Even a worm will turn.

It is the early bird that catches the worm.

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

One good turn deserves another.

A picture is worth a thousand words.

The calm before the storm.

To put the cart before the horse.

A barking dog seldom bites.

Don’t take your harp to the party.

A bird is known by its note, and a man by his talk.

Adversity makes the man wise, not rich.

Through hardship to the stars.

Return good for evil.

Better unborn than untaught.

You can bring your horse to the water but you can’t make it drink.

rhymes and twisters:

An old woman, old woman, shall we go a – shearing?

Speak a little louder, sir, - I am very hard of hearing.

Old woman, old woman, shall I love you dearly?

Thank you, kind sir, I hear you very clearly.

How many boards

Could the Mongols hoards

If the Mongol hoards got bored?

“What is this life if, full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare?”

I cannot bear to see a bear

Bear down upon a hare.

When bare of hair he strips the hare,

Right there I cry, “Forbear!”

  1. Reading of Vowel Digraphs*

Aa

Ee

Ii

Oo

Uu

Yy

Aa

[i:] formulae

[eı] aid

[aı] balalaika

[æ] plaid

[e] said

[α:] aunt

:] August

[ɒ] sausage

[əυ] aubergine

[eı] way

[e] says

[ə] always

[ı] Monday

Ee

[i:] sea

[eı] great

[ıə] idea

[e] bread

[i:] need

[i:] ceiling

[eı] beige

[aı] either

[e] leisure

[i:] people

[ıə] theory

[e] leopard

[(j)u:] neutral

[jυə] Europe

[i:] key

[ı] money

[eı] they

Ii

[ə] Parliament

[aıə] diamond

[aı] tie

[i:] achieve

[ı] Freddie

[e] friend

[ıə] patriot

[aıə] lion

[aıə] triumph

Oo

[əυ] oak

[ɔ:] broad

[u:] shoe

[ɔI] boil

[ə] tortoise

[ı] connoisseur

[əυ] brooch

[u:] food

[υ] foot

[Λ] blood

[əυ] soul

[u:] you

[υ] could

[aυ] thousand

[Λ] courage

[ɒ] cough

:] ought

[ı] loyal

Uu

[u:] true

[υə] cruel

[(j)u:] juice

[ı] biscuit

[aı] buy

Yy

[aıə] hyacinth

[aı] bye

[(j)əυ] yoga

Principles of Reading Vowel Digraphs

  1. The 1st letter is read in its primary long meaning: sea [i:], oak [əυ], etc.;

  2. The 2nd letter is read in its primary long meaning: neutral [u:], either [aı], etc.;

  3. Two letters are read in their primary short meanings, forming a diphthong: beige [eı], they [eı], boil [ɔI], oyster [ɔI];

  4. One of the letters is read in its primary short or secondary meaning: aunt [ɑ:], theory [ıə], etc.

Ex. 5.1 Read the following words with digraphs [ei|ey]. Identify the sound of each line.

[ ] 1. beige, deign, heinous.

[ ] 2. either, seismograph, deictic.

[ ] 3. seize, inveigle, ceiling, receive, deceive, conceive, perceive.

[ ] 4. heir, heiress.

[ ] 5. leisure, Leicester.

[ ] 6. counterfeit, sovereign, foreign, surfeit, forfeit.

[ ] 7. eight, freight, neighbour, weight, sleigh, weigh.

[ ] 8. height, sleight.

[ ] 9. they, survey, grey, obey.

[ ] 10. eyrie.

[ ] 11. key.

[ ] 12. monkey, money, whisky, hockey, trolley.

Ex. 5.2 Which twelve of these words contain the sound [] (as in chair)? How are the others pronounced? Can you think of any more words with []?

Air, care, dear, fair, hair, her, here, pear, pair, share, tear (verb), their, there, they’re, were, we’re, where.

Ex. 5.3

a) Read the poem. Explain the reading of vowel combinations.

A little health, a little wealth

A little house and freedom

With some few friends for certain ends,

But little cause to need them.

b) Each word on the left rhymes with one word on the right. Match the words that rhyme and try to write a short poem using some of the rhyming words.

Brain, teeth, lost, foot, boast, suit, weight, slight, death, says, dull, phrase, war, full, chef, leaf, glued

Deaf, great, beef, breathe, skull, Les, reign, days, tossed, post, height, wreath, food, shoot, put, law, wool

Ex. 5.4

a) Put the following words in the correct column according to the pronunciation of “ea”. Careful! Three of the words have two different pronunciations (and different meanings).

scream

bean

bread

gear

tear

breath

dread

lead

spear

break

heal

steak

dead

yearn

spread

read

knead

plead

pear

bead

great

team

breathe

fear

bear

thread

instead

wear

head

year

mean

pearl

[e]

10 words

[i:]

11 words

[εə]

5 words

[ıə]

5 words

[3:]

2 words

[eI]

3 words

b) Give 2 examples of your own to each variant of pronunciation of the given digraph.

[ıə ] [ εə ]

[ eI ]

EA [ɑ:]

[ i:]

[ e ]

Ex. 5.5 Read the following words. Identify the sound of each line.

[ ] 1. food, boot, foolish, boost

[ ] 2. good, cook, took, look

[ ] 3. should, would, could

[ ] 4. blood, flood

[ ] 5. door, four, floor, boor

[ ] 6. moor, tour, poor

[ ] 7. brooch

[ ] 8. round, found, sound, pound

[ ] 9. soul, bowl, mould, shoulder

[ ] 10. touch, rough, nourish, courage

[ ] 11. soup, group, boulevard, goulash

[ ] 12. thought, bought, caught, fought

[ ] 13. you, youth

Ex. 5.6 Pick out the odd word.

Example:

Like by ninth live

  1. monkey — donkey — whiskey — key

  2. feudal — few — sew — queue

  3. cook – look – pound – could

  4. foot — good — food — cook

  5. round — house — ounce — trouble

  6. could — would — mould — should

  7. seize — receive — deictic – ceiling

  8. toilet – tortoise – boycott – buoy

  9. joy –oily –voyage – connoisseur

  10. annoy – choice – they –joy – poison

  11. pear — swear — near — bear

  12. door – floor – start – small

  13. cream — head — leave — fleet

  14. purple – thirsty – journey – there

  15. ooze—wood—kangaroo—booze

  16. courage — soul — trouble — nourish

  17. plaintiff — raider — plaintive — plaid

  18. bread – reads – pence – very

  19. work – third – person – hair

  20. size – grey – life – eye

  21. buy – like – rich – kind

  22. wear – ear - hear – nearly

  23. earn – third – where – dirty

Ex. 5.7 Give 2 examples to each variant of pronunciation of the given digraph.

[əυ] []

[u:]

OU [Λ]

[ɔ:]

[ Ŋ ]

Ex. 5.8 Underline the words in which the vowel combinations are read according to the basic rule:

Cream, bleed, leave, fleet, death, dean, daily, head, rouge, great, tie, key, few, ceiling, thief, plain.

Oar, fair, fuel, fare, ore, type, ear, prior, giant, pure, fire, here, trial, real.

May, oak, coin, connoisseur, heaven, broad, seize, agree, soar, aid, via, fiery, idiot, lie, peer, fear, lean, Sunday, says, formulae, main, leisure, sea, eagle, receive, triumph, foam, aegis, sieve, needle, people, leopard, die, Leicester, pseudonym, ceiling, holiday, read, clear.

Reading of the digraph “ou” in homographes:

slough – сброшенная кожа змеи, забытая привычка; уныние, депрессия, болото.

wound – рана; крутиться, извиваться (past of wind)

Ex. 5.9 Translate the sentences and transcribe the underlined words:

    1. When I was going through the slough, I saw a slough.

2. Sometimes your slough can remind about itself. We went to the forest and found a slough there.

3. A man was injured, he had a wound. A snake wound in the cage.

4. While he was wounding, somebody wounded him.

Ex. 5.10

Place the following words in the grids according to their vowel sound.

Rich\ curl\ death\ month\ shone\ lawn\ cart\ suit\ breathe\ flashed\ loom\ herd\ still\ earn\ hemmed\ poured\ torn\ scene\ cruise\ floor\ dock\ just\ would\ don\ sword\ hoop\ banned\ rang\ bin\ love\ hat\ bird\ stabbed\ hood\ farm\ ought\ ridge\ ton\ cloth\ chalk\ hoot\ son\ link\ next\ calm\ germ\ hymn\ cab\ wood\ breath\ creep\ itch\ blood\ cough\ should\ could\ black\ said\ pearl\ edge\ shopped\ eve\ barred\ soup\ leaf\ bard\ begged

Short vowel sounds

pit [pIt]

pat [pæt]

pet [pet]

putt [pʌt]

pot [pɒt]

put [pυt]

Long vowel sounds

peat [pi:t]

pert [pз:t]

part [pɑ:t]

port [pɔ:t]

boot [pu:t]

Ex. 5.11

a) Pronounce the words:

foot – booth – flood

booklet – coop – hook

hoof – footer – looter

wooed – wood – moorings

taproom – sooty – woof

doubt – honorable – tough

neighbour – drought – coup

should – soup – pouring

thought – amount – loaches

aloud – louver – brooch

colourist – pounding – coulter

b) Choose the right variant:

[u:] a) wood, b) foolish, c) country

[Λ] a) ooze, b) flood, c) boot

[υ:] a) good, b) brooch, c) floor

[əυ] a) nourish, b) mould, c) koumiss

[Λ] a) cough, b) tough, c) soup

[u:] a) douche, b) bounce, c) sound

c) Find the odd word:

1. plait, plaid, said, aiglet

2. heir, seize, ceiling, inveigle

3. Leicester, either, height, seismograph

4. break, great, steak, bread

5. tear, heart, fear, tear

Ex. 5.12 Give some examples on each of these combinations, but all of them should denote the sound [ei]:

ai ei

[ei]

ay ey

Ex. 5.13 Pronounce the following pairs of words and write down the sounds:

[

[ ] – [ ]:

fool –foot

stoop – stood

coop – cook

[ ] – [ ]:

lead – laid

said – sage

[ ] – [ ]:

learner – Lenny

worthy – weather

[ ] – [ ]:

don’t – daunt

loan – lawn

oak-tree – orchid

[ ] – [ ]:

boy – bore

joy – jaw

coin – corn

noisier – nausea

[ ] – [ ]:

coach – couch

load – laud

rose – rouse

] – [ ]:

daughter – Dottie

caution – coughing

naughty – novice

[ ] – [ ]:

joined – John

oyster – ostrich

soiled – solid

[ ] – [ ]:

tomb – tour

view – viewer

queue – cure

[ ] – [ ]:

cleaning – clearly

ease – ears

[ ] – [ ]:

beer – bear

teary – dairy

peer –pair

[ ] – [ ]:

climb – cloud

finder – founder

dry – drought

Ex. 5.14 Divide the words into columns:

[i:]

[e]

[aiə]

[I]

Eel, bread, aegis, seize, leisure, said, quay, says, diet, key, monkey, ion, leopard, formulae, fiery, sweat, agree, giant, biscuit, lion, Leonard, connoisseur, violate, breath, diamond, auntie, pioneer, species, biological, people, jeopardy, piece, triumph, feather, via, friend, achieve, dialogue, mischief, diadem, build.

Ex. 5.15 Insert the suitable word:

fair/fare, buy/bye, waist/waste, flower/flour

  1. This man in black is ...

  2. When you get on bus you have to pay ...

  3. My wife is satisfied with her good ...

  4. It is necessary to say “Good ...” when you leave home.

  5. It is a ... of time.

  6. I am proud of my ...

  7. We can’t bake a cake without ...

  8. The girl has painted a ...

Ex. 5.16 Find a way from start to finish. You may pass a square only if the word in it has the sound []. You can move horizontally or vertically only.

START

house

sound

group

about

mouth

cow

soup

out

brown

mouse

bought

south

could

couple

grow

low

would

cloud

know

snow

touch

ought

down

count

thought

should

slow

blow

pound

young

soul

country

though

throw

town

round

FINISH

Ex. 5.17 Group the words below according to the pronunciation of the stressed vowels. Compare the meanings of single vowels and vowel combinations. What principle of reading vowel digraphs do the given words illustrate?

1. [e]

2. [eı]

3. [I]

4. [i:]

5. [aı]

6. [əυ]

7. [ɒ]

8. [ɔ I]

9. [u:]

Antennae, beg, beige, believe, brooch, bruise, boy, buy, by, coin, die, dine, either, got, in, key, made, maiden, needle, neutral, obey, pay, people, receive, seat, she, shoulder, soap, sold, soup, steak, tune, true.

Ex. 5.18 Practice reading the following words.

The letter "a":

pale, dale, rake, navy, table, ladle, staple, cradle, apron, sabre, latch, rack, jacket, quack, yank, jag, carry, parrot, garret, sparrow, barrel, rattle, tangle, sample, angry, fare, Mary, snare, daring, age, sharing, air, hairy, chair, repair, affair, farce, arch, jar, market, scarf, alarm, call. all, also, chalk, walk, tall, augur, sauce, pause, aught, author, caught, taught, claw, crawl, law, yawn, hawk, jaw, draw, day, nail, rain, wait, gait, quail, chain, away, praise, lay;

The letter "o":

nose, probe, Joe, quote, drove, wove, phone, noble, ogre, cobra, joke, ogle, yoke, jog, lodge, wrong, knock, knot, strong, core, shore, wore, oral, score, story, storm, mort, orchard, thorn, force, pork, lorry, horror, borrow, porridge, goggle, jostle, bottle, scallop, foam, coal, load, toast, roach, throat , coach, oak, roam, hold, cold, gold, jolt, stroll, roll, scold, pillow, show, window, snow, glow, crow, yellow, row, know, own, hook, hoys, coil, coy, choice, enjoy, roil, voice, destroy, cook, book, wood, look, stood, rook, coo, wool, soon, moon, zoo, broom, coop, hover, too, wooed, roof, ooze, sooth, out, about, mouth, south, scouts, count, down, town, crowd, crown, clown, howl, jowl, fowl, tower, power, flower, shower, coward, towel, trowel;

The letter "u":

cute, cube, humour, purple, unit, super, student, bugle, bugler, duty, computer, tunic, cure, Ural, pure, dual, obscure, endure, fury, curious, furious, jury, plural, cruel, rural, flue, true, rule, jute, truce, June, lunar, plume, chute, under, cut, run, jump, thunder, just, hungry, hurry, current, burrow, humble, struggle, bungle, uncle, buckle, crumple, cur, hurl, turkey, gurgle, curtains, Thursday, lurch, further, turn;

The letter "e":

bead, these, cede, Eve, recent, scene, secret, legal, sere, zero, sphere, cero, hero, mere, inhere, severe, era, well, text, vet, wet, zest, length, theft, gentle, error, cherry, sherry, Jerry, where, terror, derrick, kettle, temple, nettle, verse, germ, perch, concern, German, mercy, thermos, leap, knead, gleam, streak, teach, quean, streak, easy, wreak, veal, creek, cheep, screed, jeep, breeze, meeting, kneel, seethe, queer, wheedle, ear, tear, clear, weary, hear, rear, beard, smeary, beer, cheer, fleer, jeer, queer, pioneer, few, hew, news, yew, view, stew, newspaper, flew, grew, drew, blew, chew, threw, seize, deceive, conceit, conceive, receive, ceiling;

The letters "i/y":

nice, knife, fly, type, stifle, trifle, fibre, nylon, idle, hydra, cycle, quite, fire, lyre, tyre, quire, wire, byre, require, pick, quick, think, crypt, symbol, myth, system, gym, gyps, with, griddle, little, wiggle, sizzle, scribble, thimble, mirror, chirrup, squirrel, shirk, chirp, thirty, birch, smirch, sir, circle, quirt, Myrtle, bind, kind, mind, wind, grind, behind, high, light, might, knight, bright, thigh, tight, sigh, dial, trial, lion, diary, triumph, pioneer, flyer, giant, quiet, violin, field, grieve, believe, achieve, thief, thieve , piece.

Vowel Letter Combinations

ay, ai

says, quay, certainly, always, holiday, Sunday, certainty, Monday, portrayal, play, clay, aid, straight, against, fair, chair, rain, air, said, aisle, balalaika, curtain, claim, certain, pay, again, plait, plaid, plaintiff, plaintive, quay age, clay

ea

eagle, stream, sea, deal, bread, meal, lean, feather, sweat, breath, breakfast, heaven, pleasure, break, great, steak, fear, idea, tear, theatre, clear, earthly, rear, earthworm, Earn, earn, ear-splitting, Earn Shaw, earring, earnest, eaglet, each, eager, Easter, leave

ee

eel, needle, agree, addressee, employee, peer, beer, beetle, teenager, teem, teetotal, returnee

ei, ey

veil, convey, receive, key, height, eye, either, seismograph, sleight, money, heifer, Reynolds, atheism, deity, heir, heirloom, leitmotif, beige, donkey, eight, Leicester, weight, leisure, ceiling, receive, seize, geyser, they, survey, bogey, monkey, whiskey, weird

eu, ew, iew

feudal, few, masseuse, sew, Freudian, masseur, lieutenant, euphemism, feudalism, queue, pseudonym, neutral, Europe, leukocyte, rheumatism, leukemia, leucotomy, Lucite, Peugeot, Reuter, Reuben, reunion, reusable, Seurat, chew, Tewkesberry, mew, mewl, fewness, Newton, New-York

eo

jeopardy, leopard, Geoffrey, Leonard, people, theory, peony, theology, theorem, reorganize, reopen, Seoul, Leo, Leonardo, Leopold, Leonora, deodar, deoxyribonucleic, deodorant, , Neo-Latin, neologism, neoplasm, neonatal.

ie

piece, tie, fierce, tried, studied, dries, fries, friend, flies, sieve, handkerchief, science, pliers, society, acquiesce, Viennese, happiest, Vietnam, viewpoint, achieve, chief, species, series, mischief, auntie, Freddie, brier, fiery, diet, field, fiesta

oo

food, good, blood, flood, door, moor, poor, brooch, zoology, cooperate, cook, book, wood, floor, ooze, boost, boot, foolish, too, woo, kangaroo, foot, boost, boor, boomerang, boondocks, soothe

oi, oy

noise, boy, patois, turquoise, coin, oily, turmoil, boil, connoisseur, tortoise, loiter, loin, soiree, Boyd, boysenberry, boycott, toy

ou

round, soul, touch, group, could, should, would, thought, through, bough, through, rough, cough, thorough, flour, tourist, four, journey, courage, courier, ounce, oust, house, thousand, account, sound, fountain, youth, soup, boulevard, goulash, you, nourish, trouble, poultry, mould, shoulder, bought, slough, house, wound

Ex. 5.19 Spot the homophones:

Homophones are words (or combinations of words) which sound the same, but are spelled differently and have different meanings: meet and meat, seen and scene. Find the pairs of homophones hidden in the list below.

Side, balls, bear, bowled, cue, ducked, fort, work grate, hair, hare, bales, week, dally, bald, hold, fought, weekly, stoke, walk, missed, air, pure, packed, pear, pore, where, pour, duct, bore, seam, quiet, sought, please, shake, wade, sheikh, pleas, weakly, bold, past, sighed, piece, mist, wear, seem, sight, slay, wake, win, steak, stalk, stroke, stork, daily, stake, weak, bare, holed, wine, pact, bawls, passed, wane, queue, great, heir, pair, whine, grant, sleigh, same, weighed, site, peace.

Some of these words do not form pairs of homophones.

Ex. 5.20 Read the following proverbs:

  1. The cook stood still and looked the bush was full of good wood.

  2. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

  3. A sound mind in a sound body.

  4. A green wound is soon healed.

  5. I wouldn’t like to be in your shoes.

  6. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

  7. New brooms sweep clean.

  8. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

  9. Too good to be true.

  10. A little pot is soon hot.

Ex. 5.21 Try to read these tongue-twisters s quick as possible:

1. A tutor who taught on the flute

Tried to teach two young tooters to toot.

Said the two to the tutor,

Is it harder to toot or

To tutor two tooters to toot?

2. Whatever one toucan can do

Is sooner done by toucans two,

And three toucans (it’s very true)

Can do much more than two can do.

3. How many cookies could a good cook if a good cook could cook cookies?

A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies.

TEST I

1. Transcribe the following words:
Four, boot, cook, young, couple, good, proud, round, look, foolish, food, sour, moon, loose, pronoun.

2. Sort out the words according to the reading of vowel digraphs:

Borough, brought, tough, bough, thorough, ought, drought, dough, though, bought, sough, slough, pool, root, room, sooth, tootle, took, wooden, hooves, hook, foolhardy, footer, bootlegger, booklet.

3. Translate the following utterances and transcribe the words in bold type:

  1. After that she divorced from her husband and left her work, she was in a slough.

  2. The wound was fatal and there was no hope for his rescue.

TEST II

1. Transcribe the following words:
Nutritious, food, young, neighbour, childhood, fourteen hours, joyous
cousin, wooden house, took, roomy, would.

2. Sort out the words according to the reading of vowel digraphs:

Ooze, poor, floor, enough, choose, soul, book, southern, ounce, blood,

should, account, poultry, flood, too, could, mould, youth, rough,

trouble, mould, broach, bloom, tooth, tourist.

3. Translate the following utterances and transcribe the words in bold type:

  1. The little girl very was very frightened, when she saw a slough of a snake on a stone.

  2. A man was injured, he had a wound.

  1. Reading of Unstressed Vowels

Vowels in unstressed syllables in disyllabic and polysyllabic words usually denote the neutral sound [ə] and short [ı].

  1. The letters ‘e’, ‘i’, ‘y’ denote the sound [ı]: rocket, bandit, funny.

  2. The letters ‘a’, ‘o’, ‘u’ denote the sound [ə]: Poland, bottom, cactus.

BUT -age [ı] (message), -ate [ə/ı] (delicate), -ible [ı/ə] (terrible).

  1. The letter combinations ‘vowel + the letter ‘r” give the neutral [ə]: dollar, dinner, doctor, nature.

  2. In the letter combination ‘vowel + vowel + consonant’ (-ial, -ion, -our, -ous etc.) we pronounce the neutral [ə]: initial, division, labour, generous.

  3. In the letter combinations ‘vowel + consonant + consonant
    (+ consonant/vowel)
    ’ (-able, -ance, -ent etc.) we pronounce [ə]: capable, attendance, student.

  4. In the letter combinations ‘consonant + vowel + consonant (+ vowel)’ we can pronounce:

a) the neutral [ə]: freedom;

b) the neutral [ə] or short [ı]: careless;

c) the neutral [ə] or short [υ]: awful.

  1. The letters ‘o’ and ‘u’ in an open syllable and after a stressed syllable have their primary long meanings: sambo [əυ], costume [ju:].

  2. An unstressed vowel is not pronounced, as a rule, in the following cases:

a) e+ l\n (at the end of a word): seven [\sevn];

b) i+l (at the end of a word): pupil [\pju:pl];

c) o+n (at the end of a word): lesson [\lesn]

Ex. 6.1 Read the riddles. Try to guess the right answer. Transcribe the underlined words, explain the rules.

1) A man looks at the photo and says: “Brothers and sisters I have none, but this man’s father is my father’s son.” What relation is the man in the photograph to the man who is looking at it?

2) There is a question to which you never answer “yes”. What question is it?

3) What is it that looks like a ball,

But stands still and does not fall

off its thin and graceful leg?

Children like to turn it round,

Lakes and rivers are there found.

Countries, states and their towns

You can see on it all round.

Ex. 6.2 ( , track 6)

a) Listen to the poem. Circle the words which rhyme.

Mr. Porter loves his pasta.

No one else can eat it faster.

Mr. Porter’s sister Rita,

Buys the pasta by the metre.

Mr. Porter’s older daughter,

Boils it all in tubs of water.

b)Learn the rhyme.

The Time-table of Lazy-bones Grundy

Lazy-bones Grundy

Must do sums for Monday.

“And today it is Thursday”,

Says lazy-bones Grundy,

“So I’ll do it on Wednesday,

If not – then on Thursday,

Or even on Friday”,

Says lazy-bones Grundy.

Not very soon comes Friday

And Saturday comes,

But lazy-bones Grundy

Has no time for sums.

“Never mind”, says Grundy,

“I’ll do it on Sunday.”

So this time-table

Of lazy-bones Grundy.

Ex. 6.3 Transcribe the following words and divide them into three columns: [ju:], [əυ], [ə]

Tribune, monotony, statue, samba, cactus, attribute, customs, gratitude, ambulance, monogram, common, also, tempo, recognize.

Ex. 6.4 Pay attention to the full quality of the unstressed vowels and explain the rule:

a) mambo, canto, tempo, dingo, banjo, fresco, motto, tango, salvo, stucco, Plato, photo, solo, memo, credo, veto, Pluto, silo;

b) commune, costume, capsule, formula, circular, occupant.

Ex. 6.5

a) Listen. In each sentence or phrase there are two vowels which are not [ə]. Circle them ( , track 7)

Example: an apple and a banana

  1. from Canada to China

  2. The parrot was asleep.

  3. The cinema was open.

  4. the photographer’s assistant

  5. a question and an answer

  6. a woman and her husband

  7. a pasta salad

b) Write the words in the correct part of the table. Then listen and check ( , track 8)

Orange woman return collect market begin visit asleep

Salad teaches needed letter sofa peaches quarter women

Vowel in weak syllable = [ə]

Vowel in weak syllable = [І]

woman

orange

Ex. 6.6 Compare the reading of the vowels in stressed and unstressed position. Read the following words:

land – Holland

land – Poland

land – Iceland

Man – Frenchman

Man – Dutchman

Man – Scotchman

Us – cactus

Bus – campus

Tom – bottom

Sum – possum

Rack – barrack

Lot – ballot

Bad – ballad

Mock – hammock

Lock – hillock

Ex. 6.7 Pronounce the following words and comment on the reading of unstressed vowels:

Error, terror, horror, chirrup, barrack, mirror;

Ballot, gallop, cactus, census;

Grammar, beggar, collar, cellar, dollar, poplar;

Volga, delta, extra, villa, Sylva, Edna, character, manager;

Baggage, bandage, courage, garbage, message, accurate, adequate, affectionate, approximate, delicate;

Amber, banner, summer, supper, dinner, number, member, butter, pepper, shelter, winter;

Academy, generous, achievement, ailment, golden, deepen, different, patience, fluency, bravery;

Positive, possible, ineligible, invisibility;

Doctor, proctor, tractor, factor, actor.

Ex. 6.8 Read the following words. Note that they have complete vowel reduction.

Britain, curtain, separate, metal, medal;

Interest, model, parcel, travel;

Medicine, professional, revolutionary.

Ex. 6.9 Find the words in which unstressed vowels are not reduced:

  1. government, assurance, terrible, crock ware

  2. translation, improvable, partial, monotonous

  3. meaningless, soluble, wisdom, trainer

  4. monkey, canvas, carpet, dismount

Ex. 6.10 Listen and circle the word you hear ( , track 9)

    1. Woman or women? What time did the woman\women arrive?

    2. Dress or address? Where’s Kate’s dress\address?

    3. Manager’s or manages? The team manager’s\manages well.

    4. Teacher’s or teaches? The German teaches\teacher’s English.

    5. Weight’s or waiter’s? The weight’s\waiter’s heavy.

    6. Dancer’s or dances? The woman dancer’s\dances fast.

    7. Officer’s or office’s? The officer’s\office’s here.

    8. Away or way? Take that away\way.

    9. Drive or driver? What a nice driver\drive!

    10. Racer’s or races? The racer’s\races finished.

Ex. 6.11 Read the following words and pay attention to the reading of unstressed vowels:

Dizzy, remedial, examination, painful, remedy, extract, fever, giddy, recovery, malady, giddiness, harmful, injury, illness, injection, inflammation capable, record, competitor, chessman, curable, handicap, amateur, sensible, garment, recovery, expert, stressful, careless, judgement, remedy, doctor, patient, medical, inflammation, to operate, ambulance, ointment, prescription, painful, treatment, cancer, ailment.

Ex. 6.12 Write down the unstressed vowels, which the following words have:

clumsy, ointment, stressful, complication, dormitory, treatment, sickness, vitality, surgery, conscious, deficiency, condition, shivery, breathless, ailment, cavity, therapy, bandage, appointment, funny, rocket, nature, dollar, bottom, Poland, costume, samba, attendance, capable, student, message, delicate, freedom, awful, careless.

Ex. 6.13 Choose the words, in which the unstressed vowel is not reduced and has its primary alphabetical meaning. Explain the rule:

Stamina, contest, participant, costume, sedentary, snooker, polo, badminton, racket, victory, samba, hockey.

Ex. 6.14 Extract the words with unstressed vowels and group them according to the sound, which they denote:

Stress is a disease of the twentieth century. Life has never been faster and jobs have never been more stressful than they are today. People have to perform more and more work under difficult and more stressful conditions. Many people suffer from stress and the illness it can cause. But as this situation is becoming recognized, people shouldn’t have to fear comments such as, “He’s had a nervous breakdown. Can’t take the pressure, you know.” This is because more people are recognizing that stress is a natural reaction – it is a reaction of a person’s body to pressure, either from the outside world or from the inner world of emotions and physical organs. We can’t avoid stress. And we can’t help ourselves, or others, until we know more about it. Not all stress is bad and perhaps if we understand it better we could make the most of it.

Ex. 6.15 Find the superfluous word in each group (unstressed vowels):

[ɔ:] – ׀football, ׀terror, ׀record;

[I] – ׀phoneme, ׀profit, ׀fifties;

[æ] – can׀teen, fan׀tastic, sex׀tet;

[e] – sen׀sation, ׀congress, ׀drawback;

[i:] – re׀set, re׀group, e׀lusive.

Ex. 6.16 Transcribe the following words and explain why the unstressed vowel is reduced or not:

ba׀nana

׀profit

pre׀vented

׀tribune

ma׀chine

׀ticket

׀statue

po׀litical

׀lovely

׀dangerous

׀movement

׀horrible

׀echo

׀giddy

Ex. 6.17 Read the limerick and underline the words with [ə], [I]:

There once was a student named Bessor

Whose knowledge grew lesser and lesser

It at last grew so small,

He knew nothing at all,

And today he’s a college professor.

Ex. 6.18 Read these twisters and underline the words with [ə], [I]:

The hammer man hammers the hammer on the hard highroad.

Little lady Lilly lost her lovely locket. Lucky little Lucy found the lovely locket. Lovely little locket lay in Lucy’s pocket. Lazy little Lucy lost the lovely locket!

Ex. 6.19 Read the proverbs, explain the reading of the unstressed vowels:

  1. Appearances are deceitful.

  2. Honesty is the best policy.

  3. Better late than never.

  4. Love is a malady without cure.

  5. Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

  6. Don’t make a mountain out of a molehill.

  7. Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

  8. Accident will happen.

  9. Desperate disease must have desperate remedies.

  10. Prevention is better than cure.

  11. A merry heart is a good medicine.

  12. Caution is the parent of cure.

  13. To be a cut throat competition.

TEST

Ex. 1 Distribute the words into four groups (one and the same word can be in different groups) according to the reading of unstressed vowels:

[ə]

[I]

[ə/I]

primary alph. meaning

Radio, message, kingdom, hopeless, gratitude, cellar, belong, changeable, divide, downy, also, prepare, deliberate, attribute, deliver, courage, teacher, countable, probable, tempo.

Ex. 2 Find the words with unstressed vowels and explain their reading:

  1. Look before you leap.

  2. Hasty climbers have sudden falls.

  3. If you run after two hares, you’ll catch neither.

  4. It’s not cricket.

  5. Study sickness, while you are well.

  6. Health isn’t valued, till sickness come.

Ex. 3 Transcribe the words:

Samba, gymnastics, glider, contest, spectator, vicious, medical, polo, bicycle, judo, discuss, stamina, marathon, achievement, disqualification.

  1. Reading of Consonants

Letter

Meaning(s)

Examples

Bb

[b]

Boy, baby

Cc

[s] – before e, i, y

[k]

[∫] – before unstressed vowels

City, cycle

Come , cat

Social, musician, delicious, special

Dd

[d] – after vowels & voiced consonants in endings

[t] – after voiceless consonants in endings

Played, rained

Stopped, watched

Ff

[f]

[v]

Fine, film

of

Gg

[dʒ] – before e, i, y

[g]

[ʒ] – in words of French origin

Gym, gentle, angel

Game !!!girl,get,give

Garage, rouge, beige

Hh

[h]

Hello, hamster

Jj

[dʒ]

Jane, joy

Kk

[k]

Kettle, kitchen

Ll

[l]

Lemon, little

Mm

[m]

Money, mirror

Nn

[n]

Nose, novel

Pp

[p]

Pepper, pick

Qq

[k] – at the end of words

[kw]

Unique, technique

Quarrel, quality

Rr

[r]

Right, reality

Ss

[s] – at the beginning of words, after voiceless consonants in endings

[z] – after vowels & voiced consonants at the end of a word; between two vowels

[∫]

[ʒ]

Son, stops, caps

Mends, loses, advertise, present

impression, sugar

Measure, pleasure,

Tt

[t]

[t∫]– in words ending in -ure

[∫]–when followed by a letter i in many suffixed words

Take, water

Nature, future,

Nation, education, initial, ambition

Vv

[v]

Van, cover

Ww

[w]

Wood, wet

Xx

[ks]

[k∫]\[gz]

[gʒ] – before a stressed vowel

Box, fox, mixture

Luxury\ luxurious

Luxury

Zz

[z]

Zero, zebra

READING OF “c, g, j”

Ex. 7.1 Read the following words according to the rules and find exceptions:

college

scoff

science

cyclist

screen

occupy

cinema

scenery

soccer

canteen

success

get

gallery

German

give

general

begin

goal

genus

game

ginger

gather

jar

judge

jelly

join

joke

justice

jungle

July

Jump

Job

journalist

Ex. 7.2 Put the words into the right column and find exceptions if there are any:

[k]

[s]

[g]

[d3]

Cc: biscuit, cake, can, cap, car, cat, carpet, carry, chocolate, cinema, city, class, clean, clear, clerk, clever, clock, close, coat, come, concert, cook, cool, count, cousin, cow, cucumber, cup, cure, dance, December, doctor, face, race, factory, ice-cream, pencil, picture, place, quick, second, secretary, uncle.

Gg: august, begin, finger, flag, game, garden, get, girl, give, go, good, goose, grandfather, grass, great, green, grey, ground, jug, jungle, large, leg, orange, page, pig, porridge, tiger, village, engineer, giraffe, cage, German, together, forget, egg, dog, again, agree, angry, England, hungry, glass.

Ex. 7.3 Find the odd word:

  1. cap, candle, centre, cosy, council.

  2. gold, gum, gossip, game, give.

  3. curriculum, century, ceramic, circle, cycle.

  4. gentle, gerund, giant, gymnast, get.

  5. cake, call, cease, cause.

  6. gas, gentleman, ginger, gymnastics.

  7. get, gain, give, begin.

  8. scissors, scientific, scarf, scene.

Ex. 7.4 Add the word according to the rule:

  1. career, car, can, capital, ...

  2. century, centre, cite, Cyprus, ...

  3. gallery, gamble, garlic, governmental, ...

  4. gentle, general, gibber, gymnasium, ...

Ex. 7.5 Indicate how the letter c is pronounced in the words: [s], [∫], [k].

1. success –

2. juice –

3. sufficient –

4. anchor –

5. accept –

6. scientific –

7. chemist –

8. appreciate –

9. balcony –

10. proficiency –

11. decide –

12. clown –

13. precious –

14. tobacco –

Ex. 7.6 Indicate how the letter g is pronounced in the words: [g], [d3].

1. religion –

2. geography –

3. bridge –

4. beggar –

5. gear –

6. figure –

7. hamburger –

8. guilty -

9. engineer –

10. giant –

11. oxygen –

12. guard –

13. gypsy –

14. regulator –

15. bargain –

16. government –

Ex. 7.7 C, k, ck, que or ch for [k]? Complete the words by spelling the sound [k].

statisti_

che___

pani_ing

_riti_al

mimi_ing

traffi_er

mista_e

inspe_tor

heada_e

_ustoms

traffi_

musi_al

terrifi_

uni__

pani_

basi_

te_ni__

lu__

pi_ni_

che__

_ids

pi_ni_ing

tru_

wal_

basi_ally

drin_

mimi_

athleti_ally

Ex. 7.8 Underline the letters which are pronounced [] in the following sentences.
List the ways you found to spell this sound.

1. If you are an ambitious language learner, you should work hard on pronunciation and dictation.

2. So, after graduation you will be able to do translation and hold conversation taking part in negotiations.

3. He is impatient to go to the exhibition. Its expositions resulted from the exploration of the culture of ancient civilizations.

4. If you are anxious about future generations, please take part in our conversation project.

5. I don’t think I need your permission to go on an excursion.

6. Flies spread infectious disease. You’d better take measures against them.

7. I’m sure we won’t finish our work without financial support from a social organization.

Ex. 7.9 Fill in the missing letters s or z. Some words can be spelt both ways.

1. I must apologi_e for disturbing you so late.

2. Do you want to try on this sweater? I think it’s your si_e.

3. Everybody was surpi_ed at his calm.

4. She received the Nobel Pri_e for phy_ics.

5. What do you think of medicine adverti_ing on TV?

6. The doctor advi_ed him to take more exerci_e.

7. My parents do not sympathi_e with my ambition to go on a stage.

8. I could hardly recogni_e him. He looked different in his new suit.

9. Stop critici_ing everybody! Mind yourself!

10. It was very wi_e of you not to go there.

Ex. 7.10 Read the proverbs. Explain the rules of reading.

  1. To let the cat out of the bag.

  2. Appearances are deceitful.

  3. The devil is not so black as it is painted.

  4. The tongue is not steel, yet it cuts.

  5. To stew in one’s own juice.

  6. Well begun is half done.

  7. The game is not worth the candle.

READING OF ENDINGS -(e)s, -(e)d

The ending -(e)s of plural forms of nouns and of the 3rd singular present indefinite of verbs is read

how

when

a)

[s]

after voiceless consonants;

b)

[z]

after vowels, voiced consonants and sonorants;

c)

[ız]

after [s], [z], [∫], , [t∫], .

The ending -(e)d of regular forms of verbs is read

how

when

a)

[d]

after vowels, voiced consonants and sonorants;

b)

[t]

after voiceless consonants

c)

[ıd]

after [t], [d]


Ex. 7.11 ( , track 10)

Each line contains either verbs or adjectives ending in <-ed>, or verbs or nouns ending in <-s>. Decide which is the odd one out in terms of the way that the ending is pronounced. Then check your answer with the recording.

Example: seas picks pays digs

1

picked

stopped

robbed

taped

2

wanted

shaped

estimated

congratulated

3

shops

digs

robs

codes

4

judges

horses

names

wishes

5

trapped

faked

hoped

faded

6

wicked

picked

tricked

licked

Ex. 7.12 Read the words according to the rule:

a) with the ending -(e)s

inches, hands, chiefs, shoes, maps, boxes, safes, dishes, machines, roofs, classes, wives, babies, benches, books, bottles, boys, brings, burns, buzzes, cages, capes, cars, catches, cats, checks, clashes, clings, clocks, crooks, dates, dishes, doctors, dresses, edges, faces, feeds, fetches, fifths, fingers, foxes, gains, gnats, hooks, hopes, horses, jobs, kites, knives, knows, ladies, leaps, lies, matches, moths, noses, nurses, pages, papers, parts, phones, pies, picks, pipes, places, pumps, roses, seats, sites, skies, sofas, swims, taxes, teachers, thinks, ties, trays, wages, waves, weeks, wives, writers.

b) with the ending -(e)d

acted, added, advised, agreed, begged, called, camped, carried, compiled, composed, concreted, concurred, crashed, decided, defended, diffe­red, dressed, ended, enjoyed, entered, explained, failed, finished, fired, followed, founded, handed, hoped, hurried, joked, listed, listened, looked, marked, mended, opened, packed, painted, placed, pronounced, pumped, reminded, rested, roun­ded, sacked, shouted, seemed, seized, skated, smoked, started, stayed, robbed, tacked, talked, turned, typed, waited, walked, washed, packed, arrived, moved, worked, played, needed, smashed, ended.

Ex. 7.13 Put the words into columns:

a) with the ending -(e)s

[s]

[z]

[Iz]

Cats, touches, drops, pencils, coats, poses, gods, cured, ports, causes, fits, its, adds, tends, courses, boxes, mottos, toes, heroes, saves, boxes, spies, memories, tomatoes, drivers, potatoes, matches, plays, pockets, fingers, sources, marches, invalids, secrets.

b) with the ending -(e)d

[t]

[d]

[Id]

Forced, recorded, swamped, saved, treated, brushed, connected, viewed, waited, stopped, used, enjoyed, needed, tended, dressed, helped, danced, opened, played, counted, decided, answered, wanted, cried, studied, traveled, used, skipped, stopped, hated, trusted, published, switched, named, sounded.

Ex. 7.14 Find the odd word:

  1. noses, pieces, years, dresses, dollies.

  2. stopped, used, traveled, smelled, agreed.

  3. pens, hens, pets, lessons, heads.

  4. coasted, ended, resulted, resisted, suffered.

  5. tips, backs, points, models.

  6. places, matches, cases, shocks.

  7. passed, worked, dropped, needed.

  8. hated, promoted, landed, licked.

Ex. 7.15 Add the word according to the rule:

  1. toys, arms, fingers, hairs, ...

  2. displeased, smelled, pervaded, ...

  3. secrets, tickets, shocks, foots, ...

  4. hands, legs, years, eyes, ...

Ex. 7.16 Find a way from Start to Finish. You may not pass a square if the word contains the sound [z]. You can move horizontally or vertically only.

start

spots

squares

prize

since

six

sports

streets

wise

sells

sits

exact

escapes

rice

rise

sense

science

lose

lost

oasis

desert

smokes

songs

crisps

box

place

face

snacks

seas

voice

boxes

plays

phase

nose

smiles

focus

concert

finish

Ex. 7.17 The pronunciation of the possessive “s” is the same as for plural endings. For example: Peter’s [z], John’s [z], Philips [s], Steph’s [s], Gearge’s [Iz], Alice’s [Iz].

Put the words in italics in the correct column, according to the pronunciation of the possessive “s”.

a month’s holiday

Jane’s dog

the horse’s mouth

Joe’s ambition

Uncle Toby’s

Mr. Walsh’s car

Beth’s doll

the judge’s decision

Liz’s mother

the Jones’s children

the government’s duty

the boys’ father

the world’s resources

a wasp’s nest

a week’s pay

[z]

[s]

[Iz]

Ex. 7.18 Read the text, underline the past verbs with –ed ending and explain the rule of reading.

Robin Tailor was born in Birmingham on the 27th of December 1958. His mother died the same day. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor adopted him. In 1960, the Taylor family immigrated to Perth in Western Australia. Last year, Robin was in Britain on holiday. He traveled to Birmingham and asked about his family. He discovered that he had a twin brother! Robin phoned a BBC radio programme and told his story. He asked for information about his brother. That afternoon he received a phone call from Perth in Scotland. The next day he went to Scotland and met his brother for the first time.

Ex. 7.19 Read the proverbs. Explain the rules of reading.

  1. He laughs best who laughs last.

  2. What can’t be cured must be endured.

  3. Exception proves the rule.

  4. Nothing ventured, nothing gained.

  5. Where the shoe pinches.

  6. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

  7. It’s the early bird that catches the worm.

  8. The devil is not so black as it’s painted.

  9. Still waters run deep.

READING OF COMBINATIONS OF VOWELS WITH CONSONANTS

Letter combination

Sound

Examples

O + ld

I+ld

I+nd

Igh

A+ s + consonant

A+ n + consonant

A+ th

A+ll

Al+k

W+a

W+ar

W+or

ow

[əυ]

[aı]

[ɑ:]

[ɔ:]

[ɒ]

[ɔ:]

[3:]

[əυ], [aυ]

Cold, gold

Wild, child

Kind, find

High, night

Class, past

Plant, dance

Path, father

All, ball, wall

Talk, walk, chalk

Want, was

War, warm

Word

Row, cow

Ex. 7.20 Read the following words containing combination of vowels and consonants:

[əυ] cold, fold, hold, bold, gold, told, sold;

[aı] wild, mild, child,;

[aı] kind, mind, find, bind, blind, rind.

[a:] class, fast, ask, plant, bath, pass, past, task, grant, path, glass, cast, bask, can’t, father, grass, vast, basket, shan’t, brass, mask, branch.

[ɔ:] all, small, ball, fall, call, stall, tall, wall.

[ɒ] was, wash, what, want, watch, quality;

[aυ] now, how, cow, down, town, clown, brown, crowd, crown, flower, power, tower;

[əυ] row, own, slow, grow, snow, glow, show, throw, know

Ex. 7.21 Which word in the pair has more predictable spelling?

warm –charm

cork – work

wart –dart

worm – storm

window - binding

worm – squirm

want – pant

word – lord

call – shall

eight – height

Ex. 7.22 Find the odd word:

Target, farm, warm, market, barking.

Word, work, world, war, worse.

Behind, bind, wind, mind, blind.

Call, shall, tall, also, always.

Howl, jowl, crown, throw, coward.

Own, borrow, pillow, tower, crow.

Dance, can’t, bathroom, past, east.

Warship, quality, watch, wash, was.

Pond, gold, sold, behold, scold.

Ex. 7.23 Find the homophones:

side/ stalk/ hold/ might/ bold/ knight/ sight/ won/ site/ holed/ stork/ bowled/ night/ one/ sighed/ mite

Ex 7.24 Find the rhymes:

a) warm/ calm/ heard/ polite/ want/ show/ world/ aunts/ what/ work/ stalk/ bite

b) ago/ farm/ dance/ fight/ pot/ pond/ whirled/ perk/ night/ fork/ storm/ word

Ex. 7.25 ( , track 11)

Listen to the recording and decide which names you hear.

Example: I’ve invited ____Pete___ to join us.

a) Pete b) Peter c) Pet

1. I’ve just been talking to __________________.

a) Jan Lipman b) Jane Lipman c) Jane Leapman d) Jan Leapman

2. I’ve just got a letter from __________________.

a) Eryl b) Meryl

3. Can I speak to _____________, please?

a) Mick Wilson b) Mike Wilson c) Mack Wilson d) Mark Wilson

4. I haven’t seen ____________ for ages.

a) Mary b) Marie

5. Could you give this to __________, please?

a) Lucille b) Lucy

6. I think that’s ___________ over there.

a) Peter Bales b) Peter Vales c)Pete Bales d) Pete Vales

7. Have you met _________________?

a) Barbara Eaton b) Barbara Heaton c) Barbie Eaton d) Barbie Heaton

8. I’ve invited _______________ as well.

a) Joe Newman b) Joan Newman

9. That’s _________________, I think.

a) Sir Ralph b) Sir Alf

10. I think that’s ____________over there.

a) Sue Weedon b) Sue Eden

11. Is ___________ here today?

a) Gert b) Curt

12. I’m going with ___________ to the cinema.

a) Alec b) Alex

13. Have you seen ____________ recently?

a) Rita b) Lita

14. I hear that ___________has got a new job.

a) Bet b) Beth c) Betty d) Bess

15. Isn’t that ________over there?

a) Carl b) Carla

Ex. 7.26 ( , track 12)

Look at and listen to these pairs of words.

a. Peter and pepper. These start with the same consonant sound [p], but the following vowel sound is different: [׀pi:tə], [׀pepə].

b. Peter and pizza. These start with the same three sounds: [׀pi:tə] and [׀pi:tsə].

Now read the following pairs of words. How many identical sounds do they start with? Listen to the recording to check how they are pronounced.

Examples:

Peter/ pepper – 1 Peter/pizza – 3

1. Kate \ cake __ 9. Penny \ pizza __

2. Charles \ chocolate ___ 10. Margery \margarine ___

3. Oliver \ olives ___ 11. Barbara \ bananas ___

4. Tom \ tomatoes ___ 12. Sam \ salmon ___

5. Susan \ sugar ___ 13. Colin \ cola ___

6. Salome \ salami ___ 14. Brenda \ bread ___

7. Pat \ pasta ___ 15. Jim \ gin ___

8. Patty \ pastry ___ 16. Raymond \ radishes ___

Ex. 7.27

a) Put the following words into the correct column according to the pronunciation of”-ough”:

Cough, through, plough, fought, thought, tough, nought, ought, drought, borough, bough, sought, bought, dough, though, enough, rough, thorough

[ɔ:]

[ʌf]

[ɒf]

[u:]

[ə]

ʊ]

[aʊ]

b) Add two more words into each group:

caught, cuff, burglar, glow, stew, toffee, groan, snuff, warn, queue, terror, doubt, frown, off.

  1. Mute Consonants

Mute letter

Combinations of letters

Examples

b

bt

mb

Doubt, subtle,climb but: obtain

Bomb, comb, lamb, tomb

c

sc

Scissors, scene, muscle

d

Before consonants

Wednesday, handsome

g

gn

gm

Sign, sovereign, gnat, resign, but: pregnant, magnet

Paradigm, gnome

h

wh

rh, h

gh

kh

Which, white, where, what

Rhyme, hour, exhibition, honor

Ghost, gherkin

Khaki, khan

gh

igh

High, light, weight, fight

k

kn

Know, knife, knight, knee

l

ld (only in words)

lf

alk

lm

Could, would, should

Half, calf, but: golf, wolf

Talk, walk, chalk

Calm, psalm, but: film

n

nm

Autumn, column, condemn

p

pn

pt

ps

Pneumonia, pneumatic

Receipt, but: helicopter, September, raptorial

Psychology, psalm, but: laps, perhaps

r

after vowels

Far, farm, girl, turn, term

s

sl

Island, isle

t

ften

stle

sten

Often, soften

Whistle, castle

Listen, fasten

w

wh (before –o)

wr

sw

Who, whose, whom, whole

Writer, playwright, wrong, wrestling

Answer, but: swallow, swan, sweet

Ex. 8.1 Find the homophones:

Lamb/ wood/ receipt/ rime/ hole/right/ reseat/ knew/ fought/ whine/ reign/ lam/ rain/ new/ fort/ wine/ would/ rhyme/ write/ whole.

Ex. 8.2 Find the rhymes:

Farm, boom, delight, hurl, gate, design, sign, who, calm, threw, court, reign, alarm, height, gloom, bite, polite, refine, weight, whirl, pine, chew, caught, refrain, incite, womb, psalm, night, charm, tomb, through, balm.

Ex. 8.3 Choose the odd word:

when, which, whose, where

lump, limb, lamb, comb

calm, palm, film, balm

knapsack, knowledge, knick-knack, acknowledge

Gypsy, pseud, perhaps, eclipse

pseudonym, psychosis, trapshooting, psyche.

Ex. 8.4 Choose the appropriate word:

  1. That was really a very courageous _______.

a) knight b) night

  1. She doesn’t _____ _____ her necklace is.

a) no, were b) know, where

  1. He ______ his father was coming home because he heard his horse’s _______.

a) new, slay b) knew, sleigh

  1. He became an ________ of a tremendous fortune after his ________ death.

a) heir, father’s b) air, father’s

  1. The troops had to _____ the river.

a) wade b) weight

  1. The rose was very beautiful but the thorns on the _______ hurt my fingers.

a) stork b) stalk

  1. The king’s ________ his spouse’s glance and understood everything.

a) court b) caught

  1. It was the first day of ______ for the ______.

a) rain, shake b) reign, sheikh

Ex. 8.5 Correct the mistakes:

I got court in the reign this morning and got wet threw.

I’d like to get some fire-would.

I no wot you mean.

I always get aches and peigns in winter.

We booked the tickets threw the Internet.

She can’t weight for you.

It’s very hot there, she won’t knead her fur-coat.

Rite! That’s the correct variant.

Ex. 8.6 Complete the word by adding the silent letter.

1. An _onest man never tells lies.

2. _hose spectacles are these?

3. A bom_ exploded just near the bridge.

4. The spirit of a dead person is called a g_ost.

5. Do you hear someone _nocking at the window?

6. His _nowledge of the subject is rather poor.

7. The clock strikes every _our.

8. I’m afraid he’s caught _neumonia.

9. You’d better _rap her present up.

10. If you don’t want to forget, tie _not in your handkerchief.

  1. Reading of English Consonant Clusters

English sibilants and interdental sounds which don’t have their equivalents in the Latin alphabet are denoted by combinations of consonants, the second element of which is “h”, e. g. she, chain, thus, three.

All the combinations of consonants, except “sh”, have the primary and the secondary sound meanings. The combinations of consonants are read in the primary sound meaning in most English words. In the words of foreign origin they are read in their secondary meaning.

Cluster

Sound

Where

Examples

ch

[t∫]

[k]

[∫]

[d3]

[h]

Geek and Latin

French

cheap, chair, watch

ache, school

machinery, chef

sandwich, spinach

Loch

th

[θ]

[t]

[ð]

word end and beginning

proper names

between and before vowels

throw, tooth

Thomas, Thailand

this, leather

ph

[v]

[f]

Greek and Latin

Stephen

philosophy, phonetics

sh

[∫]

shelf, wash

READING OF “ng, nk”

Cluster

Sound

Where

Examples

ng

[ŋ]

In final position or before suffixes –er, -est, -ed, -ing

Sing, singing, singer

ng

[ŋg]

In the middle of a root word

Anger, hunger but angel, conglomerate, congratulate

nk

[ŋk]

Any position

Ink, pink

READING OF LETTER “n”

The leter “n” denotes:

[n] in prefixes – con, - non, - in, -un (income, nonsense, confident, unread)

[ŋ] before: c, k ([k] function, tank), ck, qu ([k] conquer, ancker), xi ([k∫] anxious),
g ([g] England, longer), the suffixes and endings –er, -est, -ed, -ing (sing, singer, singing).

Ex. 9.1 Read the words with letter “n”:

condition

tranquil

non-stop

confidential

constant

cleanest

hank

infamous

unbroken

conquer

singing

interrupt

hang

anxious

lighting

fore-finger

unconscious

inkpot

Ex. 9.2 Transcribe the following words and divide them into groups according to the reading of the combinations of consonants:

linked, wings, inkpot, jungle, anxious, mounting, singer, single, anger, anxious, nonsense, eating, finger, income, function, conquer, having, confident, eaten, English, concentration, nonplus, indirect, frank, hanger, linked, wings, jungle, anxious, mounting, condition, nonunion, invisible, tank, function, belonged, nice, can't, sing, incredible, land, giant, pane, strong, bringing, long, banker.

Ex. 9.3 Find the odd word:

  1. jungle, nonsense, Frank, sorting, single.

  2. uneasy, nonplus, convention, English, irritation.

  3. ring, tongue, boring, chunk, conversion.

  4. dinner, convenient, nonstop, involve, undid.

  5. unclaimed, nonsense, link, inhale.

  6. finger, hang, frank, stronger.

  7. singer, hanger, belonged, doing.

Ex. 9.4 Add the word according to the rule:

  1. informal, non-aggression, unable, ...

  2. tank, frank, hank, ...

  3. longer, stronger, younger, ...

  4. sung, wing, finger, ...

  5. consult, industry, indulge, ...

  6. stinks, tank, inkpot, ...

  7. boring, sorting, lying, ...

Ex. 9.5 Find the way from Start to Finish. You may pass a square only if the word
in it has the sound [ŋ]. You can move horizontally or vertically only.

Start ↓

sing

think

thick

strong

wrong

rung

sign

uncle

unless

drug

strange

comb

thanks

angry

signal

drank

English

finger

anxious

angel

single

monkey

money

young

language

tongue

skiing

skin

came

ink

lounge

danger

band

dream

swim

wing

↑ Finish

Ex. 9.6 Explain the rules of reading in these proverbs:

  1. What is done cannot be undone.

  2. Wars the sport of kings.

  3. He who swims in sin will sink in sorrow.

  4. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

  5. Better unborn than untaught.

  6. Honey is sweet but the bee stings.

Ex. 9.7 Join consonant clusters with the sounds they can denote. There are 4 sounds that don’t fit here.

[d3]

[t]

[t∫]

[v]

[ð]

[s]

CH SH TH

NG PH NK

[n]

[ŋk]

[h]

[f]

[θ]

[g]

[ŋ]

[∫]

[k]

[ŋg]

Find the word with each sound:

Chandelier, worth, anger, triumph, Anthony, sandwich, cheekbone, Stephen, shrewd, bang, Frank, than, monarchy

Ex. 9.8 Find the odd word according to the way of the reading of consonant clusters:

  1. accept, success, soccer, accede, access, accent.

  2. anchor, young, conquer, conclude, function.

  3. think, thunder, throne, thyme, thick, thing.

  4. chaos, chord, stomach, monarchy, chaste.

  5. tooth, scythe, truth, thumb, throw, thin.

  6. go, gargle, gage, glove, stage, give.

  7. chef, chic, champagne, charade, chick.

Ex. 9.9 Sort out the words into columns according to the reading of consonant clusters.

Machinery, scheme, scythe, child, Thames, weather, chef, Christmas, Thompson, chick, than, chic, chord, chalice, cliché, Chaos, neither, thyme, thrift, cheek, though, thorn, thaw, thief.

Ex. 9.10 Find a way from start to finish. You may pass a square only if the word in it has the sound [θ]. You can move horizontally of vertically.

Start

north

northern

either

weather

breathe

those

south

bath

bathe

thought

breath

youth

southern

third

their

through

though

thumb

Thailand

cloth

path

fifth

with

worth

month

clothes

these

brother

that

teeth

throw

thing

author

other

they

wealth

Finish

Ex. 9.11 Complete this rhyme using words from the box. Then listen and check ( , track 13)

Earth

another

Heather

together

brother

birth

neither

either

mothers

brothers

Arthur had a brother

And he didn’t want another.

And of the brothers, ______

Wanted sisters _____ .

The last thing on this_____

They wanted was a _____.

So Arthur’s mother _____

Got them both _____,

And told them all good _____

Should learn to share their _____.

Ex. 9.12 Listen and circle the word you hear( , track 14)

  1. Youth or use? There’s no youth\use talking about that.

  2. Thought or taught? I don’t know what she thought\taught.

  3. Free or three? Free\Three refills with each packet!

  4. Closed or clothed? They weren’t fully closed\clothed.

  5. Breeding or breathing? They’ve stopped breeding\breathing.

  6. These are or visa? These are\Visa problems we can deal with later.

Ex. 9.13 Practice reading the following words observing the rules of reading of consonant clusters:

a) Sheep, fish, Lewisham, mishap, ghost, rough, high, eight, daughter, Ghana, ghastly, ghee, gherkin, ghetto, ghillie, ghoul, Ghana, ghee, gharry, ghoulish, shoulder, shovel, show off, shrewd, shrink, Zhirinovsky, Zhukov, Zhivago, Zhejiang, Zhang, Zhuhai, photograph, shepherd, Stephen, Clapham, nephew, cheap, chair, charm, scheme, school, ache, cholesterol, chemistry, machinery, clef, sandwich, Charles, charter, charka, charivari, chateau, chauffeur, cheekbone, Chaucer, chauvinism, Chihuahua, chloral, choir, cholera, cholinesterase, pharmacology, pharyngeal, phoneme, phonetic, physiotherapy, phthisis, phylum

b) Wristband, knout, wryneck, Khachaturian, wreathe, Khan, Khyber, khanate, pneumothorax, Knox, knuckle, wrongheaded, Khrushchev, knurl, knockdown.

Ex. 9.14 Read the proverbs; explain the reading of consonant clusters:

The tongue is not steel, yet it cuts.

Exception proves the rule.

Where the shoe pinches.

Don’t cross the bridge till you get to it.

Physicians mend or end us.

Neither fish nor flesh.

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

A watched pot never boils.

A drowning man will catch at a straw.

Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

Ex. 9.15 Practice reading the following homophones:

Homophones are words (or combinations of words)

  • which sound the same, but are spelled differently and have different meanings: e.g. meet and meat, seen and scene.

  • There are some examples of one word sounding like a combination of words: e.g. heed and he’d.

  • Sometimes three words (or combinations of words) sound exactly the same: e.g. I’ll, isle and aisle.

    • scent – a distinctive smell, sent – the past tense of send

    • scene – the place where an event takes place, seen – the past tense of see

    • site – a piece of land, cite – to quote

    • session – the meeting of a court, cession – the act of ceding

    • scull – rowing motion, skull – head bone

    • sic – to set upon, sick- ill

    • sink – to submerge, synch – together in time

    • soared – to have sailed through the air, sword – long fighting blade

    • sucker – one who sucks, succor – relief

    • plum – purple fruit, plumb – straight up and down

    • profit – money earned, prophet – seer

    • bark – outer sheath of a tree, barque – square-rigged sailing ship

    • bloc – an alliance, block – square object

    • bold – brave, bowled – knocked over

    • boll – round seed pod, bowl – dish

    • borough – township, burrow – dig into the ground

    • bough – tree branch, bow – front of a ship, respectful bend

    • burger – meat sandwich, burgher – merchant

    • but – excepting, butt – the thick end

Ex. 9.16

Spot the homophones 1

isle / bard / beer / bored / caught / night / pale / cawed / chord / sly / died / dyer / cored/ dough / flawed / toed / pear / meal / floored / teas / knew / heard / soar / heal / lacks / lax / male / steer / we’ll / maize / might / slay / dead / stair / mite / breaks / knight / towed / dire / knit / weight / herd / seam / aisle / he’ll / nit / tees / new / pail / bier / board / barred / pare / doe / pair / rain court / bared / dyed / heel / reign / saw / mail / sore / I’ll / seem / maze / sleigh / stare / tease / toad / wait / wheel

Some of these words do not form pairs of homophones.

Ex. 9.17

Spot the homophones 2

In the following conversation a large number of words have been replaced by homophones. Spot where they have been used and decide how the words should be written.

- Lousy whether we’ve been having recently. (=Lousy weather…)

- We haven’t been having much son, that’s for shore. I got court in the reign this mourning and got wet threw.

- Me two. And how about that cold missed first thing? I went out bear headed to get sum fire-would and haven’t bean warm since. And my hands got quite saw as well. Really roar, they feel.

- I no watcher mean. I always get aches and panes in the winter. Anyway, weir off to get some son necks tweak. Weave booked a few daze in Singerpoor.

- Yes, I herd you had. Lucky yew! Still, I shouldn’t mown. We flue to Florida last cheer, witch was really nice, and it’s only fore weeks till we visit my sun and daughter-in lore in Roam. Haven’t scene them for rages. We only maid the booking yesterday, threw the internet. Mary’s already pact; she can’t weight.

- Well, tell her she won’t knead her fir coat any weigh.

- Rite. Oh Kay. Aisle sea you later.

- Buy. See ewe a round.

Some of the homophones show that this is fast, informal speech.

Ex. 9.18 Transcribe the following words:

Shop, fish, this, English, shot, three, cheese, something, thus, months, catch, through, that, child, chef, these, those, thirst, third, chop, shelf, anxious, trophy, scholarship, changes, England, machinery, gage, judge, science, echo, tongues, income, scheme.

Ex. 9.19 ( , track 15)

A In each line, identify the word that has a different first consonant sound. Read them first, then listen to the recording to check.

Example: friend priest physical philosophy

1

kettle

car

circle

catch

2

these

thank

think

thread

3

when

which

whose

where

4

church

choir

cheap

chart

5

plenty

prince

piano

pneumatic

6

number

know

moon

gnaw

B In each line, identify the word that has a different final consonant sound. Then listen to the recording to check.

1

picked

rubbed

fact

bought

2

dragged

road

dropped

hide

3

cough

safe

roof

of

4

packs

ox

begs

pats

5

lump

chasm

limb

name

6

sock

music

arch

ache

Ex. 9.20 Practice reading the following twisters:

  1. Have judgement not to judge this judgement judging by people’s judgement.

  2. Each child has much chance to become the champion of the match.

  3. This is a thick thimble.

  4. A handsome singer sang an exciting song in English.

TEST

I. Find the odd word in the line:

1. Guide, gas, general, glass, globe

2. Crimson, music, lens, always, research

3. Initiative, negotiate, transition, completion, station.

II. Explain assimilation(s) in the following words:

Cupboard, nice shoes, twice, try, sweet, plane, pray

III. Mark stresses:

heretical

Arabic

political

Chinese

attention

lunatic

IV. Transcribe the following words:

Psychiatrist, appointment, therapy, tranquilizer, medicinal, malaria, typhoid, hang gliding, windsurf, athletics, steeplechase, draughts, rink, oar, tournament.

  1. Revision and Consolidation Practice

Ex. 10.1 Practise the following poem, which illustrates the irregular spelling of English.

HINTS ON PRONUNCIATION FOR FOREIGNERS

I take it you already know

Of tough and bough and cough and dough?

Others may stumble but not you,

On hiccough, thorough, laugh and through

Well done! And now you wish, perhaps,

To learn of less familiar traps.

Beware of heard: a dreadful word

That looks like beard and sounds like bird.

And dead: it’s said like bed not bead

For goodness’ sake don’t call it deed.

Watch out for meat and great and threat

(They rhyme with suite and straight and debt!)

A moth is not a moth in mother;

Nor both in bother, broth in brother;

And here is not a match for there,

Nor dear and fear for bear and pear.

And then there’s dose and rose and lose

(Just look them up) and goose and choose,

And cork and work and card and ward,

And font and front and word and sword,

And do and go and thwart and cart

Come, come! I’ve hardly made a start.

A dreadful language? Man alive!

I’d mastered it when I was five!

I will teach you in my verse

Words like corps, corks, horse, and worse.

For this phonetic labyrinth

Gives monkey, donkey, ninth and plinth;

Wounded, rounded, grieve and sieve;

Friend and fiend; alive and live.

Query does not rhyme with very,

Nor does fury sound like bury.

Dies and diet; lord and word,

Earth and hearth and clerk and herd;

Evil, devil, tomb, bomb, comb;

Doll, roll, dull, bull, some and home.

Finally – for I’ve said enough –

Through though thorough plough cough tough!

While hiccough has the sound of cup…

My advice is: GIVE IT UP!

Put the words which are wholly or partially in italics on the correct line, according
to the pronunciation of the italicized vowel sound. Some have been done for you.

[ʌ]

tough

[aʊ]

bough

[ɒ]

cough

[əʊ]

[ə]

[ɑ:]

[u:]

[ɜ:]

[ɪə]

[e]

[i:]

[]

[ɛə]

[ɔ:]

[]

[ɪ]

[ʊ]

Ex. 10.2 Group the letters of the English alphabet according to their pronunciation:

O P A C

H D

V F Z J Y

I

U The Alphabet B Q R

M

W G

N E S L

K

T X

i:

e

eI

u:

aI

əu

ɑ:

Ex. 10.3 There is one spelling mistake in each word in the following text. Underline every word which is wrongly spelt. Then write the correct spelling in the space provided at the end of the sentence.

The moon is a natural satellite that travels around the earth (_______). As the moon moves, it seemes to change shape (______). But it does not change sheipe (_____). It has no ligth of its own (_____). When we see the moon, we see sonlight reflected off it (______). We can see the moon only if the lighted part is torned towards Earth (_____). During the full moon, the lighted part of the moon is torned towards Earth (_____). There is no eaar on the moon (____). And it is very hot in the day-time on it (____). It appeares to have no live (_____). Many people wanted to lean more about the moon (_____). Long ago, people used only there eyes to look at the moon (_____). They could not see the moon’s land clealy (_____). Later, a telescope was invanted (______). Since then, people have used telescops to study the moon (_____).

Ex. 10.4 There is one spelling mistake in each line in the following text. Underline every word which is wrongly spelt. Then write the correct spelling in the space provided at the end of the sentence.

Have you ever thought that a person’s apperance ____________

revels more than we realise? According to some _____________

experts, a persons’ face, head, and body can_________________

reveal a great deal about personallity. ______________________

The art of frenology studies the form of the _________________

head, to be more acurate, the bumps on it. __________________

Phrenologists have identified forty bumps of varios ___________

shapes and sises on the human head. They “read _____________

these bumps to identifie a person’s talents and _______________

charactor. For exmple, a bump between the nose _____________

and forhead is said to be present in people who ______________

have natural elegence and love of beauty. A bump ____________

behind the cirve of the ear is the sign of ____________________

a courageous and adventerous person. _____________________

Ex. 10.5 The two words that are written after each sentence sound alike, but have different meanings and spellings (they are called homophones). Fill in the blanks with the correct words to complete each sentence.

1. The _______ spent the ______ in the castle.

A) knight B) night

2. Be sure to ______ your surname on the ______ line.

A) write B) right

3. Have you heard the fairy ______ about the cat with no ______ ?

A) tale B) tail

4. Didn’t you ______ Ann ask you to put the plate______ .

A) here B) hear

5. The ______ on a ______ is called fur.

A) hare B) hair

6. Yesterday the sky was clear ______ and the wind ______ from the north.

A) blue B) blew

7. He decided to ______ his new belt, but he doesn’t know ______ he put it.

A) where B) wear

8. From ______ hundred flowers the prince had to find the flower before it was ______ late.

A) too B) two

9. It is not ______ if some people do not pay their bus ______ .

A) fair B) fare

10. The coach announced which ______ of the teams ______ the game.

A) won B) one

11. We brought a ______ of cool water to the ______ traveler.

A) pail B) pale

12. Do you always ______ the skin off a ______ before you eat it?

A) pare B) pear

13. The Indians wrote the ______ treaty on a ______ of bark.

A) piece B) peace

14. After his illness John felt ______ for a ______ .

A) week B) weak

15. The boat sailed ______ through the ______ .

A) straight B) strait

Ex. 10.6 Correct the spelling mistakes in the letter below:

Deer Jane,

Hear I am in Siberia. We’ve been hear for too weaks now, and I can’t bare the thought of staying in this country any longer.

What dreadful whether! It’s bitterly cold out. When I’m chilled to the bone, I think I’ll never warm up.

Wee leave in a wooden house. It is surrounded with a huge would. The hunter, who lives with us, says that the would is full of beasts. You can walk their and meat a dear or a bear. As for me, I saw a hair’s sine.

Do you think it is fare to leave me hear! I can’t even sleep in piece. Can’t you come and stay with me? The air fair is really not very expensive. Hope to sea you soon. Your Jack.

Ex. 10.7 Find the pairs of homophones hidden in the list below:

Side/ balls/ bear/ bowled/ cue/ ducked/ fort/ work/ grate/ hair/ hare/ bales/ week/ dally/ bald/ hold/ fought/ weekly/ stoke/ walk/ missed/ air/ pure/ packed/ pear/ pore/ where/ pour/ duct/ bore/ seam/ quiet/ sought/ please/ shake/ wade/ sheikh/ pleas/ weakly/ bold/ past/ sighed/ piece/ mist/ wear/ seem/ sight/ slay/ wake/ win/ steak/ stalk/ stroke/ stork/ daily/ stake/ weak/ bare/ holed/ wine/ pact/ bawls/ passed/ wane/ queue/ great/ heir/ pair/ whine/ grant/ sleigh/ same/ weighed/ site/ peace

Ex. 10.8 Each line contains three words that rhyme and one word that doesn’t. Choose the odd one out.

Example: steel peal stale peel

Bert

Curt

shirt

Bart

coot

loot

soot

shoot

relate

fete

weight

height

spook

took

look

rook

food

mood

brewed

good

sewed

glued

chewed

nude

jerk

clerk

work

shirk

packed

backed

baked

fact

scene

sign

mean

convene

laze

phase

days

size

peak

steak

leak

cheek

soot

cut

put

foot

height

tight

weight

might

stalk

work

fork

cork

quite

night

lied

light

clear

bear

hare

fair

barred

bared

hard

yard

duke

spook

look

Luke

taught

court

snort

coughed

priced

missed

fist

kissed

Ex. 10.9 Spelling tests:

a) Each word here has the sound [e]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:

ready

desk

bread

instead

against

leather

hello

next

helpings

said

breakfast

sledge

meant

again

when

enemy

hedgehog

pencil

b) Tick the words that have the vowel sound [ɒ]:

catch

pond

bones

pocket

what

bought

job

home

blank

road

house

roof

wife

doctor

popular

soup

close

horse

c) Each word here has the sound [Λ]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:

touch

stuff

drum

rough

among

glove

tongue

dug

mother

trust

done

month

country

enough

son

double

couple

muddy

d) Each word here has the sound [f]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:

laugh

coffee

herself

face

enough

officer

fact

elephant

gift

off

epigraph

roof

farmer

rough

telephone

e) Each word here has the sound [eI]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:

hay

main

trail

may

save

gate

tray

fail

lane

sail

stage

paint

stay

place

game

f) Each word here has the sound [i:]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:

seed

dream

sleep

wheel

team

grief

week

niece

delete

complete

sea

eve

field

meat

scene

g) Each word here has the sound [aI]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:

find

dime

fly

right

quite

tight

bright

pile

ninth

kind

mine

dry

line

flight

sigh

h) Each word here has the sound [əυ]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:

doze

moan

snow

goat

hold

stone

cold

joke

gold

bowl

road

code

grow

float

blow

i) Each word here has the sound [u:]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:

moon

chew

glue

blew

zoo

blue

clue

drew

rule

true

threw

June

school

pool

rude

include

gloomy

boot

Ex. 10.10 Find the rhymes

Here are some very short, two-line poems, but the rhyming words are missing. Try to guess the missing words which complete each poem. If you can’t think of any, choose from the list.
(The list contains some words which rhyme, but which do not make sense in the poems.)

A)


I think you ___________ She’s learned to ___________

To leave the __________ In just a __________________


You haven’t ________ It’s always ___________

A single ___________ Down on the __________

I like a ________

Last thing at ____

bike/ bird/ bite/ bought/ byte/ calm/ caught/ charm/ court/ farm/ feel/ fight/ harm/ heard/ herd/ leak/ leek/ light/ like/ listened/ meal/ might/night/ ought/ right/ should/ sight/ speak/ spoken/ talk/ taught/ token/walk/ weak/ week/ wood/ word/ work

B)


This shirt you ______ I think I’ll __________

Is rather __________ A pound of _________


He’s learned to _______ It’s not too __________

In just one __________ To lose some ________

I wish the ___________

Would make less ______

bought/ boys/ buy/ by/ caught/ day/ height/ kids/ late/ light/ mate/ meat/ meet/ night/ noise/ play/ poem/ read/ reed/ right/ shake/ short/ soon/ sound/ steak/ take/ toys/ wait/ weigh/ weight/ write

C)


I think the ______ It might make _____

Would like to _____ To build a ________


My youngest ________ I’ll try to __________

Sure likes to _________ To get a __________

He’s too ___________

To want to _________

alone/ aunts/ bone/ box/ dames/ dance/ fence/ fight/ friendly/ fun/ girls/ loan/ lone/ none/ one/ pence/ phone/ polite/ right/ run/ scared/ sense/ sight/ son/ sun/ trance

  1. Additional Practice in Reading and Memory Work

( , track 16)

LES SILHOUETTES

Oscar Wilde

The sea is flecked with bars of grey

The dull dead wind is out of tune,

And like a withered leaf the moon

Is blown across the stormy bay.

Etched clear upon the pallid sand

The black boat lies: a sailor boy

Clambers aboard in careless joy

With laughing face and gleaming hand.

And overhead the curlews cry,

Where through the dusky upland grass

The young brown-throated reapers pass,

Like silhouettes against the sky.

( , track 17)

REQUIESCAT

Oscar Wilde

Tread lightly, she is near

Under the snow,

Speak gently, she can hear

The daisies grow.

All her bright golden hair

Tarnished with rust,

She that was young and fair

Fallen to dust.

Lily-like, white as snow,

She hardly knew

She was a woman, so

Sweetly she grew.

Coffin-board, heavy stone,

Lie on her breast,

I vex my heart alone

She is at rest.

Peace, Peace, she cannot hear

Lyre or sonnet,

All my life's buried here,

Heap earth upon it.

( , track 18)

(MR= Marta Rodriguez)

MR Good morning, everyone. Thanks for coming to my presentation. My name’s Marta Rodriguez. I’m Personnel Director of Tara Fashions. I’m going to talk to you today about our company. First, I’ll give you some basic information about Tara Fashions. Then I’ll talk about our overseas stores. After that I’ll outline the strengths of the company. Next I’ll talk about career opportunities with Tara. And finally I’ll mention our future plans. I’ll be pleased to answer any questions at the end of my talk.

Let me start with some basic facts about Tara. The company started in 1978. We are a family-owned business and our head office is in Cordoba, Spain. We sell clothes for men and women, and our customers are mainly fashion-conscious people aged 20 to 35. We have 15 stores in Spain. All the stores are very profitable.

Right, those are the basic facts.

Let me add a few figures. We have an annual turnover of about 260 million euro. Our net profits last year were approximately 16 million euro. We have a workforce of just over 2,000 employees. So those are the numbers. Now about our overseas stores. We have four large stores in France and another ten in other European countries. We are planning to open five new stores next year. What are our strengths? We keep up with fashion trends. If we spot a trend, we can bring out a new design in 15 days. And we get it to the stores very quickly. We deliver to stores twice a week. And we sell our designs at the right price.

OK, now what about career opportunities? It’s quite simple. If you are ambitious and fashion-conscious, we have opportunities in all areas of our business. We will welcome you with open arms.

Finally, a few words about our new projects. We are planning to open a new store in New York next year – on Fifth Avenue. This will give us a foothold in the US market. We’re very excited about this new development.

Well, thanks very much for listening to my talk. Are there any questions?

( , track 19)

(I=Inge, Ka=Katharina, Ke=Kenneth, N=Nada, J=Julia)

I Right, can we start, please? The main aim of the meeting is to decide the date of the launch. After that, we’ll talk about our marketing strategy and decide which sales outlets we should target. OK, when are we going to launch the goggles? Katharina, what do you think? Should it be early next year or should we wait until the summer?

Ka I’m in favour of February or March. There’s a gap in the market for our products. Why wait any longer? The goggles are technically advanced – let’s just cash in on that.

I Thanks, Katharina. OK, let’s hear a few more views. Kenneth, what’s your opinion?

Ke Mmm, I don’t know about February. It’s a bit early in the year. I suggest we launch in May or June. People go on holiday then. It’s a peak period for buying goggles.

I Thanks, Kenneth. Nadia, what’s your view? You’re a keen swimmer, I know.

N In my opinion, February’s best time. We could promote them in swimming pools and opticians. The price should be high. I’d say, at least 50 pounds.

Ka Hold on a minute. I thought we were talking about the launch date, not about promotion or price.

I You’re right, Katharina. Let’s get back to the point. OK everyone, I think on balance we agree – we prefer the earlier date. Let’s move on now to marketing. Julia, which outlets do you think we should target?

J I think we should start with the specialist stores. That’s were most swimmers buy their goggles.

I What do you mean by specialist stores, Julia? Are you thinking of sports goods outlets, you know, stores which only sell sports equipment?

J Exactly. They should be our main target.

( , track 20)

Now, I’d like to move on to our most successful products, Protean. As I’m sure you know, our new fabric was named after Proteus, the Greek sea god who was able to take on different roles and shapes. Indeed, Protean can be used for a wide variety of products because it is extremely flexible. Let me give you some basic information about Protean’s three main features.

Firstly, it is made from fibres that are similar to nylon and polyester. These fibres are coated with a metallic substance, so that the fabric can conduct electricity. In addition, the fabric can be made very thick or very thin – so thin in fact as to become translucent, - to let some light pass through.

Secondly, as you can experience for yourselves from the samples that are going round, not only is it very soft to the touch, but it’s also strong and long-lasting.

Finally, it can be made in absolutely any colour.

To conclude my presentation, I’d like to tell you about our future plans.

We at Fabtek believe that Protean has enormous sales potential. We are currently trying to increase sales by licensing other manufacturers to produce interesting new products with Protean. We already have a licensing agreement with Azra, a Swiss firm, which has created some award-winning products using Protean. You can find the details of some of those products in the leaflet in your folder.

( , track 21)

(V=Vincent, M=Monica, T=Tanya)

V I think we should do a lot more to improve our staff’s health and fitness. What do you think, Monica?

M I agree. There are all sorts of things we could do to help staff to become more healthy and stay healthy. For one thing, we could offer them a free medical checkup every year.

V Right. That’s a good idea. A lot of firms do that. And how about having a no-smoking policy in the staff restaurant? What do you think about that, Tanya?

T Mm, I don’t think I like the idea very much. It wouldn’t be good for morale. A lot of our staff smoke – they’d be against it, I’m sure of that. I think we should improve the food. A lot of the dishes aren’t healthy – there’s far too much fatty food, not enough fish, fruit and vegetables.

V True. We could change the menus and offer healthier meals. I like that idea.

M what about setting up a counseling service, Vincent? Some staff are under a lot of stress. It affects their work and they need professional help.

V I don’t know, Monica. It’d be very expensive to set up a service like that. Anyway, we have a company doctor. That’s her job, isn’t it?

( , track 22)

(V=Vincent, T=Tanya, M=Monica)

V I’ve got another suggestion. We could talk to the manager of our local sports centre and arrange a company membership. What do you think, Tanya?

T Mm, I don’t know. It sounds interesting, but it could be very expensive. A group fee for all our staff would probably cost a fortune.

V What’s your opinion, Monica?

M I think you’re right, Tanya. It’s cost a lot and I’m not sure how many staff would actually use the centre. Some people say it hasn’t got many facilities.

V I can’t agree with you there. It’s got a very good pool and sauna. If we could negotiate a low membership fee, it might be worth considering, surely.

T Yes, it’s worth checking out, I suppose. A lot of staff might enjoy having a swim at lunchtime or after work. And a sauna is very relaxing, I must admit.

M Maybe, but there are so many other things we could do. Things which are less expensive, but they’d improve people’s health just as much. Let me tell you about a few ideas I have…

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cotton D. Market Leader. Pre-Intermediate Business English. Longman, 2007.

Hancock M. English Pronunciation in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Compass. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Kelly J. How to Teach Pronunciation. Longman, 2003.

Vaughan-Rees M. Test Your Pronunciation, Penguin English, 2006.

CONTENTS

1.The Syllable. The Principles of Syllable Division 5

2.The Primary and the Secondary Meaning of Letters 9

3.The Primary Sound Meanings of Vowels in Different Types of Syllables 10

4.Reading of Stressed Vowels in Combination with the Letter ”r” 19

5.Reading of Vowel Digraphs 24

6.Reading of Unstressed Vowels 35

7.Reading of Consonants 41

8.Mute Consonants 51

9.Reading of English Consonant Clusters 53

10.Revision and Consolidation Practice 60

11.Additional Practice in Reading and Memory Work 69

12.BIBLIOGRAPHY 73

* Digraph [daıgræf] – a pair of letters that represent one sound

1



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