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Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Cough, through, plough, fought, thought, tough, nought, ought, drought, borough, bough, sought, bought, dough, though, enough, rough, thorough

[ɔ:]

[ʌf]

[ɒf]

[u:]

[ə]

ʊ]

[aʊ]

b) Add two more words into each group:

caught, cuff, burglar, glow, stew, toffee, groan, snuff, warn, queue, terror, doubt, frown, off.

  1. Mute Consonants

Mute letter

Combinations of letters

Examples

b

bt

mb

Doubt, subtle,climb but: obtain

Bomb, comb, lamb, tomb

c

sc

Scissors, scene, muscle

d

Before consonants

Wednesday, handsome

g

gn

gm

Sign, sovereign, gnat, resign, but: pregnant, magnet

Paradigm, gnome

h

wh

rh, h

gh

kh

Which, white, where, what

Rhyme, hour, exhibition, honor

Ghost, gherkin

Khaki, khan

gh

igh

High, light, weight, fight

k

kn

Know, knife, knight, knee

l

ld (only in words)

lf

alk

lm

Could, would, should

Half, calf, but: golf, wolf

Talk, walk, chalk

Calm, psalm, but: film

n

nm

Autumn, column, condemn

p

pn

pt

ps

Pneumonia, pneumatic

Receipt, but: helicopter, September, raptorial

Psychology, psalm, but: laps, perhaps

r

after vowels

Far, farm, girl, turn, term

s

sl

Island, isle

t

ften

stle

sten

Often, soften

Whistle, castle

Listen, fasten

w

wh (before –o)

wr

sw

Who, whose, whom, whole

Writer, playwright, wrong, wrestling

Answer, but: swallow, swan, sweet

Ex. 8.1 Find the homophones:

Lamb/ wood/ receipt/ rime/ hole/right/ reseat/ knew/ fought/ whine/ reign/ lam/ rain/ new/ fort/ wine/ would/ rhyme/ write/ whole.

Ex. 8.2 Find the rhymes:

Farm, boom, delight, hurl, gate, design, sign, who, calm, threw, court, reign, alarm, height, gloom, bite, polite, refine, weight, whirl, pine, chew, caught, refrain, incite, womb, psalm, night, charm, tomb, through, balm.

Ex. 8.3 Choose the odd word:

when, which, whose, where

lump, limb, lamb, comb

calm, palm, film, balm

knapsack, knowledge, knick-knack, acknowledge

Gypsy, pseud, perhaps, eclipse

pseudonym, psychosis, trapshooting, psyche.

Ex. 8.4 Choose the appropriate word:

  1. That was really a very courageous _______.

a) knight b) night

  1. She doesn’t _____ _____ her necklace is.

a) no, were b) know, where

  1. He ______ his father was coming home because he heard his horse’s _______.

a) new, slay b) knew, sleigh

  1. He became an ________ of a tremendous fortune after his ________ death.

a) heir, father’s b) air, father’s

  1. The troops had to _____ the river.

a) wade b) weight

  1. The rose was very beautiful but the thorns on the _______ hurt my fingers.

a) stork b) stalk

  1. The king’s ________ his spouse’s glance and understood everything.

a) court b) caught

  1. It was the first day of ______ for the ______.

a) rain, shake b) reign, sheikh

Ex. 8.5 Correct the mistakes:

I got court in the reign this morning and got wet threw.

I’d like to get some fire-would.

I no wot you mean.

I always get aches and peigns in winter.

We booked the tickets threw the Internet.

She can’t weight for you.

It’s very hot there, she won’t knead her fur-coat.

Rite! That’s the correct variant.

Ex. 8.6 Complete the word by adding the silent letter.

1. An _onest man never tells lies.

2. _hose spectacles are these?

3. A bom_ exploded just near the bridge.

4. The spirit of a dead person is called a g_ost.

5. Do you hear someone _nocking at the window?

6. His _nowledge of the subject is rather poor.

7. The clock strikes every _our.

8. I’m afraid he’s caught _neumonia.

9. You’d better _rap her present up.

10. If you don’t want to forget, tie _not in your handkerchief.

  1. Reading of English Consonant Clusters

English sibilants and interdental sounds which don’t have their equivalents in the Latin alphabet are denoted by combinations of consonants, the second element of which is “h”, e. g. she, chain, thus, three.

All the combinations of consonants, except “sh”, have the primary and the secondary sound meanings. The combinations of consonants are read in the primary sound meaning in most English words. In the words of foreign origin they are read in their secondary meaning.

Cluster

Sound

Where

Examples

ch

[t∫]

[k]

[∫]

[d3]

[h]

Geek and Latin

French

cheap, chair, watch

ache, school

machinery, chef

sandwich, spinach

Loch

th

[θ]

[t]

[ð]

word end and beginning

proper names

between and before vowels

throw, tooth

Thomas, Thailand

this, leather

ph

[v]

[f]

Greek and Latin

Stephen

philosophy, phonetics

sh

[∫]

shelf, wash

READING OF “ng, nk”

Cluster

Sound

Where

Examples

ng

[ŋ]

In final position or before suffixes –er, -est, -ed, -ing

Sing, singing, singer

ng

[ŋg]

In the middle of a root word

Anger, hunger but angel, conglomerate, congratulate

nk

[ŋk]

Any position

Ink, pink

READING OF LETTER “n”

The leter “n” denotes:

[n] in prefixes – con, - non, - in, -un (income, nonsense, confident, unread)

[ŋ] before: c, k ([k] function, tank), ck, qu ([k] conquer, ancker), xi ([k∫] anxious),
g ([g] England, longer), the suffixes and endings –er, -est, -ed, -ing (sing, singer, singing).

Ex. 9.1 Read the words with letter “n”:

condition

tranquil

non-stop

confidential

constant

cleanest

hank

infamous

unbroken

conquer

singing

interrupt

hang

anxious

lighting

fore-finger

unconscious

inkpot

Ex. 9.2 Transcribe the following words and divide them into groups according to the reading of the combinations of consonants:

linked, wings, inkpot, jungle, anxious, mounting, singer, single, anger, anxious, nonsense, eating, finger, income, function, conquer, having, confident, eaten, English, concentration, nonplus, indirect, frank, hanger, linked, wings, jungle, anxious, mounting, condition, nonunion, invisible, tank, function, belonged, nice, can't, sing, incredible, land, giant, pane, strong, bringing, long, banker.

Ex. 9.3 Find the odd word:

  1. jungle, nonsense, Frank, sorting, single.

  2. uneasy, nonplus, convention, English, irritation.

  3. ring, tongue, boring, chunk, conversion.

  4. dinner, convenient, nonstop, involve, undid.

  5. unclaimed, nonsense, link, inhale.

  6. finger, hang, frank, stronger.

  7. singer, hanger, belonged, doing.

Ex. 9.4 Add the word according to the rule:

  1. informal, non-aggression, unable, ...

  2. tank, frank, hank, ...

  3. longer, stronger, younger, ...

  4. sung, wing, finger, ...

  5. consult, industry, indulge, ...

  6. stinks, tank, inkpot, ...

  7. boring, sorting, lying, ...

Ex. 9.5 Find the way from Start to Finish. You may pass a square only if the word
in it has the sound [ŋ]. You can move horizontally or vertically only.

Start ↓

sing

think

thick

strong

wrong

rung

sign

uncle

unless

drug

strange

comb

thanks

angry

signal

drank

English

finger

anxious

angel

single

monkey

money

young

language

tongue

skiing

skin

came

ink

lounge

danger

band

dream

swim

wing

↑ Finish

Ex. 9.6 Explain the rules of reading in these proverbs:

  1. What is done cannot be undone.

  2. Wars the sport of kings.

  3. He who swims in sin will sink in sorrow.

  4. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

  5. Better unborn than untaught.

  6. Honey is sweet but the bee stings.

Ex. 9.7 Join consonant clusters with the sounds they can denote. There are 4 sounds that don’t fit here.

[d3]

[t]

[t∫]

[v]

[ð]

[s]

CH SH TH

NG PH NK

[n]

[ŋk]

[h]

[f]

[θ]

[g]

[ŋ]

[∫]

[k]

[ŋg]

Find the word with each sound:



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