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Come, come! I’ve hardly made a start.

A dreadful language? Man alive!

I’d mastered it when I was five!

I will teach you in my verse

Words like corps, corks, horse, and worse.

For this phonetic labyrinth

Gives monkey, donkey, ninth and plinth;

Wounded, rounded, grieve and sieve;

Friend and fiend; alive and live.

Query does not rhyme with very,

Nor does fury sound like bury.

Dies and diet; lord and word,

Earth and hearth and clerk and herd;

Evil, devil, tomb, bomb, comb;

Doll, roll, dull, bull, some and home.

Finally – for I’ve said enough –

Through though thorough plough cough tough!

While hiccough has the sound of cup…

My advice is: GIVE IT UP!

Put the words which are wholly or partially in italics on the correct line, according
to the pronunciation of the italicized vowel sound. Some have been done for you.

[ʌ]

tough

[aʊ]

bough

[ɒ]

cough

[əʊ]

[ə]

[ɑ:]

[u:]

[ɜ:]

[ɪə]

[e]

[i:]

[]

[ɛə]

[ɔ:]

[]

[ɪ]

[ʊ]

Ex. 10.2 Group the letters of the English alphabet according to their pronunciation:

O P A C

H D

V F Z J Y

I

U The Alphabet B Q R

M

W G

N E S L

K

T X

i:

e

eI

u:

aI

əu

ɑ:

Ex. 10.3 There is one spelling mistake in each word in the following text. Underline every word which is wrongly spelt. Then write the correct spelling in the space provided at the end of the sentence.

The moon is a natural satellite that travels around the earth (_______). As the moon moves, it seemes to change shape (______). But it does not change sheipe (_____). It has no ligth of its own (_____). When we see the moon, we see sonlight reflected off it (______). We can see the moon only if the lighted part is torned towards Earth (_____). During the full moon, the lighted part of the moon is torned towards Earth (_____). There is no eaar on the moon (____). And it is very hot in the day-time on it (____). It appeares to have no live (_____). Many people wanted to lean more about the moon (_____). Long ago, people used only there eyes to look at the moon (_____). They could not see the moon’s land clealy (_____). Later, a telescope was invanted (______). Since then, people have used telescops to study the moon (_____).

Ex. 10.4 There is one spelling mistake in each line in the following text. Underline every word which is wrongly spelt. Then write the correct spelling in the space provided at the end of the sentence.

Have you ever thought that a person’s apperance ____________

revels more than we realise? According to some _____________

experts, a persons’ face, head, and body can_________________

reveal a great deal about personallity. ______________________

The art of frenology studies the form of the _________________

head, to be more acurate, the bumps on it. __________________

Phrenologists have identified forty bumps of varios ___________

shapes and sises on the human head. They “read _____________

these bumps to identifie a person’s talents and _______________

charactor. For exmple, a bump between the nose _____________

and forhead is said to be present in people who ______________

have natural elegence and love of beauty. A bump ____________

behind the cirve of the ear is the sign of ____________________

a courageous and adventerous person. _____________________

Ex. 10.5 The two words that are written after each sentence sound alike, but have different meanings and spellings (they are called homophones). Fill in the blanks with the correct words to complete each sentence.

1. The _______ spent the ______ in the castle.

A) knight B) night

2. Be sure to ______ your surname on the ______ line.

A) write B) right

3. Have you heard the fairy ______ about the cat with no ______ ?

A) tale B) tail

4. Didn’t you ______ Ann ask you to put the plate______ .

A) here B) hear

5. The ______ on a ______ is called fur.

A) hare B) hair

6. Yesterday the sky was clear ______ and the wind ______ from the north.

A) blue B) blew

7. He decided to ______ his new belt, but he doesn’t know ______ he put it.

A) where B) wear

8. From ______ hundred flowers the prince had to find the flower before it was ______ late.

A) too B) two

9. It is not ______ if some people do not pay their bus ______ .

A) fair B) fare

10. The coach announced which ______ of the teams ______ the game.

A) won B) one

11. We brought a ______ of cool water to the ______ traveler.

A) pail B) pale

12. Do you always ______ the skin off a ______ before you eat it?

A) pare B) pear

13. The Indians wrote the ______ treaty on a ______ of bark.

A) piece B) peace

14. After his illness John felt ______ for a ______ .

A) week B) weak

15. The boat sailed ______ through the ______ .

A) straight B) strait

Ex. 10.6 Correct the spelling mistakes in the letter below:

Deer Jane,

Hear I am in Siberia. We’ve been hear for too weaks now, and I can’t bare the thought of staying in this country any longer.

What dreadful whether! It’s bitterly cold out. When I’m chilled to the bone, I think I’ll never warm up.

Wee leave in a wooden house. It is surrounded with a huge would. The hunter, who lives with us, says that the would is full of beasts. You can walk their and meat a dear or a bear. As for me, I saw a hair’s sine.

Do you think it is fare to leave me hear! I can’t even sleep in piece. Can’t you come and stay with me? The air fair is really not very expensive. Hope to sea you soon. Your Jack.

Ex. 10.7 Find the pairs of homophones hidden in the list below:

Side/ balls/ bear/ bowled/ cue/ ducked/ fort/ work/ grate/ hair/ hare/ bales/ week/ dally/ bald/ hold/ fought/ weekly/ stoke/ walk/ missed/ air/ pure/ packed/ pear/ pore/ where/ pour/ duct/ bore/ seam/ quiet/ sought/ please/ shake/ wade/ sheikh/ pleas/ weakly/ bold/ past/ sighed/ piece/ mist/ wear/ seem/ sight/ slay/ wake/ win/ steak/ stalk/ stroke/ stork/ daily/ stake/ weak/ bare/ holed/ wine/ pact/ bawls/ passed/ wane/ queue/ great/ heir/ pair/ whine/ grant/ sleigh/ same/ weighed/ site/ peace

Ex. 10.8 Each line contains three words that rhyme and one word that doesn’t. Choose the odd one out.

Example: steel peal stale peel

Bert

Curt

shirt

Bart

coot

loot

soot

shoot

relate

fete

weight

height

spook

took

look

rook

food

mood

brewed

good

sewed

glued

chewed

nude

jerk

clerk

work

shirk

packed

backed

baked

fact

scene

sign

mean

convene

laze

phase

days

size

peak

steak

leak

cheek

soot

cut

put

foot

height

tight

weight

might

stalk

work

fork

cork

quite

night

lied

light

clear

bear

hare

fair

barred

bared

hard

yard

duke

spook

look

Luke

taught

court

snort

coughed

priced

missed

fist

kissed

Ex. 10.9 Spelling tests:

a) Each word here has the sound [e]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:

ready

desk

bread

instead

against

leather

hello

next

helpings

said

breakfast

sledge

meant

again

when

enemy

hedgehog

pencil

b) Tick the words that have the vowel sound [ɒ]:

catch

pond

bones

pocket

what

bought

job

home

blank

road

house

roof

wife

doctor

popular

soup

close

horse

c) Each word here has the sound [Λ]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:

touch

stuff

drum

rough

among

glove

tongue

dug

mother

trust

done

month

country

enough

son

double

couple

muddy

d) Each word here has the sound [f]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:

laugh

coffee

herself

face

enough

officer

fact

elephant

gift

off

epigraph

roof

farmer

rough

telephone

e) Each word here has the sound [eI]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:

hay

main

trail

may

save

gate

tray

fail

lane

sail

stage

paint

stay

place

game

f) Each word here has the sound [i:]. How many ways are there to spell this sound?
Arrange the words into the groups:

seed

dream

sleep

wheel

team

grief

week

niece

delete

complete

sea

eve

field

meat

scene

g) Each word here has the sound [aI]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:

find

dime

fly

right

quite

tight

bright

pile

ninth

kind

mine

dry

line

flight

sigh

h) Each word here has the sound [əυ]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:

doze

moan

snow

goat

hold

stone

cold

joke

gold

bowl

road

code

grow

float

blow

i) Each word here has the sound [u:]. How many ways are there to spell this sound? Arrange the words into the groups:

moon

chew

glue

blew

zoo

blue

clue

drew

rule

true

threw

June

school

pool

rude

include

gloomy

boot

Ex. 10.10 Find the rhymes

Here are some very short, two-line poems, but the rhyming words are missing. Try to guess the missing words which complete each poem. If you can’t think of any, choose from the list.
(The list contains some words which rhyme, but which do not make sense in the poems.)

A)


I think you ___________ She’s learned to ___________

To leave the __________ In just a __________________


You haven’t ________ It’s always ___________

A single ___________ Down on the __________

I like a ________

Last thing at ____

bike/ bird/ bite/ bought/ byte/ calm/ caught/ charm/ court/ farm/ feel/ fight/ harm/ heard/ herd/ leak/ leek/ light/ like/ listened/ meal/ might/night/ ought/ right/ should/ sight/ speak/ spoken/ talk/ taught/ token/walk/ weak/ week/ wood/ word/ work

B)


This shirt you ______ I think I’ll __________

Is rather __________ A pound of _________


He’s learned to _______ It’s not too __________

In just one __________ To lose some ________

I wish the ___________

Would make less ______

bought/ boys/ buy/ by/ caught/ day/ height/ kids/ late/ light/ mate/ meat/ meet/ night/ noise/ play/ poem/ read/ reed/ right/ shake/ short/ soon/ sound/ steak/ take/ toys/ wait/ weigh/ weight/ write

C)


I think the ______ It might make _____

Would like to _____ To build a ________


My youngest ________ I’ll try to __________

Sure likes to _________ To get a __________

He’s too ___________

To want to _________

alone/ aunts/ bone/ box/ dames/ dance/ fence/ fight/ friendly/ fun/ girls/ loan/ lone/ none/ one/ pence/ phone/ polite/ right/ run/ scared/ sense/ sight/ son/ sun/ trance

  1. Additional Practice in Reading and Memory Work

( , track 16)

LES SILHOUETTES

Oscar Wilde

The sea is flecked with bars of grey

The dull dead wind is out of tune,

And like a withered leaf the moon

Is blown across the stormy bay.

Etched clear upon the pallid sand

The black boat lies: a sailor boy

Clambers aboard in careless joy

With laughing face and gleaming hand.

And overhead the curlews cry,

Where through the dusky upland grass

The young brown-throated reapers pass,

Like silhouettes against the sky.

( , track 17)

REQUIESCAT

Oscar Wilde

Tread lightly, she is near

Under the snow,

Speak gently, she can hear

The daisies grow.

All her bright golden hair

Tarnished with rust,

She that was young and fair

Fallen to dust.

Lily-like, white as snow,

She hardly knew

She was a woman, so

Sweetly she grew.

Coffin-board, heavy stone,

Lie on her breast,

I vex my heart alone

She is at rest.

Peace, Peace, she cannot hear

Lyre or sonnet,

All my life's buried here,

Heap earth upon it.

( , track 18)

(MR= Marta Rodriguez)

MR Good morning, everyone. Thanks for coming to my presentation. My name’s Marta Rodriguez. I’m Personnel Director of Tara Fashions. I’m going to talk to you today about our company. First, I’ll give you some basic information about Tara Fashions. Then I’ll talk about our overseas stores. After that I’ll outline the strengths of the company. Next I’ll talk about career opportunities with Tara. And finally I’ll mention our future plans. I’ll be pleased to answer any questions at the end of my talk.

Let me start with some basic facts about Tara. The company started in 1978. We are a family-owned business and our head office is in Cordoba, Spain. We sell clothes for men and women, and our customers are mainly fashion-conscious people aged 20 to 35. We have 15 stores in Spain. All the stores are very profitable.

Right, those are the basic facts.

Let me add a few figures. We have an annual turnover of about 260 million euro. Our net profits last year were approximately 16 million euro. We have a workforce of just over 2,000 employees. So those are the numbers. Now about our overseas stores. We have four large stores in France and another ten in other European countries. We are planning to open five new stores next year. What are our strengths? We keep up with fashion trends. If we spot a trend, we can bring out a new design in 15 days. And we get it to the stores very quickly. We deliver to stores twice a week. And we sell our designs at the right price.

OK, now what about career opportunities? It’s quite simple. If you are ambitious and fashion-conscious, we have opportunities in all areas of our business. We will welcome you with open arms.

Finally, a few words about our new projects. We are planning to open a new store in New York next year – on Fifth Avenue. This will give us a foothold in the US market. We’re very excited about this new development.

Well, thanks very much for listening to my talk. Are there any questions?

( , track 19)

(I=Inge, Ka=Katharina, Ke=Kenneth, N=Nada, J=Julia)

I Right, can we start, please? The main aim of the meeting is to decide the date of the launch. After that, we’ll talk about our marketing strategy and decide which sales outlets we should target. OK, when are we going to launch the goggles? Katharina, what do you think? Should it be early next year or should we wait until the summer?

Ka I’m in favour of February or March. There’s a gap in the market for our products. Why wait any longer? The goggles are technically advanced – let’s just cash in on that.

I Thanks, Katharina. OK, let’s hear a few more views. Kenneth, what’s your opinion?

Ke Mmm, I don’t know about February. It’s a bit early in the year. I suggest we launch in May or June. People go on holiday then. It’s a peak period for buying goggles.

I Thanks, Kenneth. Nadia, what’s your view? You’re a keen swimmer, I know.

N In my opinion, February’s best time. We could promote them in swimming pools and opticians. The price should be high. I’d say, at least 50 pounds.

Ka Hold on a minute. I thought we were talking about the launch date, not about promotion or price.

I You’re right, Katharina. Let’s get back to the point. OK everyone, I think on balance we agree – we prefer the earlier date. Let’s move on now to marketing. Julia, which outlets do you think we should target?

J I think we should start with the specialist stores. That’s were most swimmers buy their goggles.

I What do you mean by specialist stores, Julia? Are you thinking of sports goods outlets, you know, stores which only sell sports equipment?

J Exactly. They should be our main target.

( , track 20)

Now, I’d like to move on to our most successful products, Protean. As I’m sure you know, our new fabric was named after Proteus, the Greek sea god who was able to take on different roles and shapes. Indeed, Protean can be used for a wide variety of products because it is extremely flexible. Let me give you some basic information about Protean’s three main features.

Firstly, it is made from fibres that are similar to nylon and polyester. These fibres are coated with a metallic substance, so that the fabric can conduct electricity. In addition, the fabric can be made very thick or very thin – so thin in fact as to become translucent, - to let some light pass through.

Secondly, as you can experience for yourselves from the samples that are going round, not only is it very soft to the touch, but it’s also strong and long-lasting.

Finally, it can be made in absolutely any colour.

To conclude my presentation, I’d like to tell you about our future plans.

We at Fabtek believe that Protean has enormous sales potential. We are currently trying to increase sales by licensing other manufacturers to produce interesting new products with Protean. We already have a licensing agreement with Azra, a Swiss firm, which has created some award-winning products using Protean. You can find the details of some of those products in the leaflet in your folder.

( , track 21)

(V=Vincent, M=Monica, T=Tanya)

V I think we should do a lot more to improve our staff’s health and fitness. What do you think, Monica?

M I agree. There are all sorts of things we could do to help staff to become more healthy and stay healthy. For one thing, we could offer them a free medical checkup every year.

V Right. That’s a good idea. A lot of firms do that. And how about having a no-smoking policy in the staff restaurant? What do you think about that, Tanya?

T Mm, I don’t think I like the idea very much. It wouldn’t be good for morale. A lot of our staff smoke – they’d be against it, I’m sure of that. I think we should improve the food. A lot of the dishes aren’t healthy – there’s far too much fatty food, not enough fish, fruit and vegetables.

V True. We could change the menus and offer healthier meals. I like that idea.

M what about setting up a counseling service, Vincent? Some staff are under a lot of stress. It affects their work and they need professional help.

V I don’t know, Monica. It’d be very expensive to set up a service like that. Anyway, we have a company doctor. That’s her job, isn’t it?

( , track 22)

(V=Vincent, T=Tanya, M=Monica)

V I’ve got another suggestion. We could talk to the manager of our local sports centre and arrange a company membership. What do you think, Tanya?

T Mm, I don’t know. It sounds interesting, but it could be very expensive. A group fee for all our staff would probably cost a fortune.

V What’s your opinion, Monica?

M I think you’re right, Tanya. It’s cost a lot and I’m not sure how many staff would actually use the centre. Some people say it hasn’t got many facilities.

V I can’t agree with you there. It’s got a very good pool and sauna. If we could negotiate a low membership fee, it might be worth considering, surely.

T Yes, it’s worth checking out, I suppose. A lot of staff might enjoy having a swim at lunchtime or after work. And a sauna is very relaxing, I must admit.

M Maybe, but there are so many other things we could do. Things which are less expensive, but they’d improve people’s health just as much. Let me tell you about a few ideas I have…

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cotton D. Market Leader. Pre-Intermediate Business English. Longman, 2007.

Hancock M. English Pronunciation in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Compass. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Kelly J. How to Teach Pronunciation. Longman, 2003.

Vaughan-Rees M. Test Your Pronunciation, Penguin English, 2006.

CONTENTS

1.The Syllable. The Principles of Syllable Division 5

2.The Primary and the Secondary Meaning of Letters 9

3.The Primary Sound Meanings of Vowels in Different Types of Syllables 10

4.Reading of Stressed Vowels in Combination with the Letter ”r” 19

5.Reading of Vowel Digraphs 24

6.Reading of Unstressed Vowels 35

7.Reading of Consonants 41

8.Mute Consonants 51

9.Reading of English Consonant Clusters 53

10.Revision and Consolidation Practice 60

11.Additional Practice in Reading and Memory Work 69

12.BIBLIOGRAPHY 73

* Digraph [daıgræf] – a pair of letters that represent one sound

1



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