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Introduction There have been a number of burglaries in the area

in which the Peterson family are living; thus they have become increasingly

interested in Control Technology in their home.? They have contacted me, and my task is to prepare a report,

which advises them upon various alarm systems, also considering fire detection

systems. I am going to provide the Peterson?s with two reports, one

outlining a basic security system for the family, and the other a more advanced

top of the range system. This will give the family the necessary information to

decide which system would suit their needs the most as well as being within

their price range. In the reports I shall inform them in detail what should go

into the system, prices, and the best places to install the various components

in their home. SensorsMany different types of sensors could be used for

various security and fire systems. There are sensors that detect movement, or a

change in light, or temperature. Below is a list of some that could be used.Mercury Tilt Switch ? This is placed inside a device, and

if that device is moved or tilted in any way it causes a blob of mercury to

complete a circuit by touching contacts. This is often used in vending

machines, or machines that contain money or goods that might cause people to

tilt the machine to attempt to get the goods out. In the Peterson?s home this

type of sensor could be used on doors or windows to detect whether they are

opened. Light Sensor ? This is a sensor that can detect a change in

lighting levels. These types of sensors are often used with streetlights, and

detect when it is dark enough for the streetlights to be turned on. This could

also be used for a security light outside the Peterson?s house, which will

switch on when it is dark. Push Sensor ? These sensors create a circuit, which can turn

on a light. These are often used on car or fridge doors, switching a light on

when the door is opened. Temperature Sensor ? A sensor that detects a change in

temperature, they are often used to within central heating systems to help in

keeping the temperature of a house constant.?

This could be used to detect a fire, as there will be a rise of temperature

in the event of a fire.Sound Sensor ? Used to record the level of sound, usually

from places where loud music is being played.Proximity Sensor? -

These sensors are made in two halves, and a signal is activated if the two

halves are moved away from one another. They are often seen on windows. The

Peterson?s could use sensors like these to activate a signal if their windows

are opened when the alarm is set, as this could indicate somebody trying to get

in. ? Basic Security

System This basic security system is designed for somebody

that simply wants and needs a basic level of protection, and/or may be unable

to afford a costly top of the range system. The equipment which is to be included in the basic

security system is as follows: Basic control panel (1) The basic control panel more or less operates the whole

system. Usually it would be about the size of an A4 piece of paper, and 2

inches thick. It would need to have a keypad, which would allow a unique PIN to

be set so that the alarm system can be switched on and off. It will need to be

connected to the sensors and the bell box so that the sensors could send

signals when movement was detected, and so that it could send signals to the

bell box to activate the alarm. This may result in a lot of unsightly wiring

around the house, which could cause problems. There would only need to be one of these in the house

because only one control panel is needed per system. This would be placed in

the cupboard under the stairs, so that the alarm system could be accessed easily

so it can be switched on and off, as it is fairly close to both the entrance

and exits of the house. It also will be hidden from view in the cupboard, so it

will not clutter up any other area of the house or be an eye sore. Infra red movement sensor (4) These sensors will detect movement in a room when the alarm

system is on. They send an infrared beam into the room and when this beam is

broken a signal will be sent along a wire to the control panel, which in turn

will set off an alarm. They should be placed in key areas, which could be

containing important things that the family wants to protect, or leading into

areas containing important items. I have decided to place them in 4 rooms, but

not areas that the main doors lead into the house, as somebody could come into

the house and not have chance to deactivate the alarm system before the alarm

is set off. They should be placed away from windows so that they cannot detect

movement outside the house and set off the alarm when there isn?t an intruder. The

areas I am going to place these in are the living room, the dining room, the

upstairs landing and the hall. I only placed one upstairs because it is more

likely any intruders would enter via a door or window in the lower part of the

house, since climbing in through an upstairs window takes longer, and would

mean that they would be very visible and more likely to get caught. The PIR on

the landing upstairs will immediately detect them should they venture upstairs.

If a family have pets, it is possible that they could

actually set off the alarm by the PIRs detecting their movement, so something

named a pet guard is available. This only sends the infrared beams above a

certain height, so that they cannot detect animals fairly low on the floor. Alarm box (Self-actuating sounder) (1) It is essential that an alarm box be placed in the system,

as otherwise there will be no alert to possible break-ins. This will also have

a flashing light, which will allow it to be seen by people also. If, for

example, one of the movement sensors detects a movement inside the house, it

will send a signal to the control panel, which will send a signal to the alarm

box meaning that the house alarm will be set off. There only needs to be one, as two might create more noise

and attract more attention, but it is unnecessary. This will be placed outside

on the front of the roof, above the two top windows of the house. This is

because it will then be more likely to be heard by more people in the area when

it is activated, and even when the alarm stops the flashing light will be very

easily visible. Magnetic door contact (2) When a door is either opened or closed, this creates a

circuit that will set an alarm off. These would be useful at night so that the

family would know when anybody was entering the house, or if an intruder

somehow managed to obtain a house key then this would alert the family/people

in the area that somebody was entering the house that shouldn?t be. I am going to place these on the two main doors which lead

into the house, as they would be no use on any doors inside the house since

that would mean that the intruder was already in the house.Stand by battery This will be needed in case of a power cut, as if there

wasn?t a stand by battery then the alarm system would be rendered useless in

the event of a power cut since it does depend upon the house having power. If

the is a power cut then the stand by battery will be activated meaning that the

house will still be protected. This shall be kept in the small cupboard under

the stairs, along with the control box, as then it will be out of the way but

still accessible if need be. Smoke detector (2) These will detect any smoke in the house and activate an

alarm. Smoke alarms are fairly small, and they are usually placed on the

ceiling, since smoke rises. Being placed on the ceiling they are fairly

discreet and unnoticeable. I am going to place them on the landing, and in the hall. On

the landing because smoke rises, and also if I just placed one downstairs and a

fire begins upstairs then the fire would not be detected. In the hall so that

fires downstairs can be detected. I chose the hall because it is near enough to

the kitchen that a serious fire beginning in there could be detected, but far

enough away that simply cooking dinner would not set off an alarm.The inputs and outputs of the equipment in the system,

including pictures System Equipment Input To Equipment Output To Equipment Picture Control

Panel Signals

from sensors or button presses Activation/deactivation

of alarm system, signals sent to alarm box Movement

Sensor Movement Signal

to control box Alarm Box Signal

from control box Activation

or deactivation of siren Magnetic

Door Contact Door

opens which creates a circuit Signal

to control box which activates siren Stand By

Battery Power

cut Activates

stand by battery so system can continue running Smoke

Detector Smoke Alarm Advantages

of the basic system·

The system will be easy to set up, and inexpensive,

and also will protect the family.·

As well as being easy to set up, the system is fairly simple

for the family to learn how to use, as well as protecting them to a basic level

of security that would be enough for most families.·

People will be alerted to both fire and break-ins in the

house, and the alarm will definitely deter burglars if they see the box at the

front of the house. Also in the event of a burglary, there?s more chance of it

being stopped due to the sirens.·

The back up battery protects the system against power cuts,

so the system will always be working and protecting even in events such as

power cuts.·

The magnetic door contacts mean that if an intruder managed

to obtain a house key, then the alarm system would still go off if they did not

know how to deactivate it.·

Smoke detectors pick up and alert people to any smoke in the

house, as smoke means fire. This is an advantage over having no smoke

detectors; as if a fire began whilst the family were sleeping then they would

be alerted to it hopefully before it got out of hand.·

Since the family would start with a basic system, this could

always be upgraded to a more advanced system, which would protect the family to

a higher level if they felt it was necessary. Disadvantages of the basic system ·

The system is a basic system, which means that it is more

likely that burglars could get past the system than with a more hi-tech

security system.·

Having a pet guard on the PIR detectors means that if an

intruder were to crawl across the room at the height of an animal then they

would not be detected by the PIRs and the alarm would not go off.·

The smoke alarm must be tested regularly to ensure that

batteries are still working. If this is not done, and the batteries run out

then the families smoke alarm is useless, and fires would not be detected.·

After the alarm has been set off once then the system is

deactivated. This means that if a burglar came back to attempt to enter the

house again the alarm wouldn?t go off and the house could be burgled.·

It is likely that a lot of wires would need to be lain

around the house for the system to work, although some of these could be hidden

some of them probably wouldn?t be able to be hidden, and these could be


The alarm system needs to be activated by different codes,

which could be difficult for the family to remember, and if they forget them

then they could set off the alarm trying to deactivate the system, or not be

able to activate the system at all.·

Most of the equipment in the system doesn?t actually prevent

fire/break-ins, it just alerts people to them whilst/after they happen.

Therefore theft could still happen even with the alarm system installed. The

smoke alarm also does nothing whatsoever to prevent fire.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

???????????????????????????Considerations of installing the

basic systemBelow is a list of all the things that the family should

consider before deciding to install the basic security system.·

Timing to switch the alarm off – When the family enter or exit

the house, they don?t want the alarm to go off before they have change to

deactivate the system, or to get out the back door. Therefore setting entry and

exit times is a good idea, so that the alarm doesn?t set for say 30 seconds

after it is activated, and go off for 30 seconds after somebody entering the

house. This will give them time to set or unset the system.·

Sensitivity of sensors ? If the sensors are highly

sensitive, it may mean that they do pick up things outside, or movements of for

example curtains in a room due to the window being open. To combat this it

needs to be made sure that the sensor is not set up pointing out of the window,

and the family should try to remember to close windows of the rooms that

sensors are in before leaving the house. ·

Activating and deactivating the system ? This can be done

either through a password, a code, or a key. The family need to think about

which would be easiest for them. A key might seem the easiest, but each member

of the family would need one, and they could also be lost or taken by somebody

else. Passwords and codes may also be easy to forget which would mean that the

system couldn?t be used.·

Cost ? The family need to make sure that they can afford the

initial costs for the system, as it will cost nothing to very little once it is

installed. They should plan to purchase a system that will be the best for

them, and within their price range.·

Trial runs – All of the equipment should be tested and

checked to make sure that it works, as if it didn?t it would be useless. Advanced Security SystemThe advanced security system is designed for a family

that need a large amount of protection and want a top of the range system. The

amount that could be spent on this type of system is almost unlimited. Below

are my suggestions for a top of the range security and fire system for the

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