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REVIEWING KEY CONCEPTS

1) Define natural and positive law. Identify the fundamental differences between the theories of natural and positive law. Give an example to illustrate each of these theories.

? NATURAL LAWa is based on the theory that law has some higher or divine

origin, entitling it to a supremacy .

A set of ideal rules of conduct, from which it is believed all

human law should originate.

- The law has some higher authority.

- Universal and doesn’t change.

? POSITIVE LAW My be discribed as laws resting upon human authority.

The belief that law is simply what the political authorities or

law-makers command.

- Created by man.

3) Which philosopher would you best associate with (a) civil law, (b) cannon or church law, (c) utilitarianism? Explain how each relates to the law

UTILITARIANISM a Theory that the greatest happiness of the greatest number

should guide the formation of all laws

CIVIL LAW a Laws governing relations between individuals.

? CANNON OR CHURCH

(St. Thomas Aquinas) He believed that law was the mirror of a natural world order that was made known to humans by their own process of reasoning and by divine revelation through Christian prophets.

? UTILITARIANISM

(PLATO) I believe that Plato falls under this category because of the idea that believes that law should reflect certain universal, absolute, and eternal truths or virtues.

For Plato, human law-makers should be the servants of laws that aimed for the true happiness of the citizens.


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