Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
Ray Douglas Bradbury Essay, Research Paper
Ray Douglas Bradbury was born in Waukegan, Illinois on August
22,1920. He was the third born son of Leonard Spauldling Bradbury and
Esther Marie Moberg Bradbury. In the fall of 1926 the Bradbury family
moved from their home in Waukegan to Tucson, Arizona. However, their
stay there only lasted until May of 1927 when they moved back to their
original habitation. Bradbury began writing his own literature on butcher
paper when he was 11 years old. Ray and his family moved again moved to
Tucson, Arizona and back to Waukegan, Illinois again in 1932. This rapid
movement was initiated when Leonard Bradbury was laid off from his job
installing telephone lines, only to be rehired later in the year. In 1934 the
Bradbury family moved yet again, but this time to Los Angeles, California.
Ray attended high school in Los Angeles. He graduated in 1938,
finishing his formal school career. Bradbury decided that in order to further
his education, he would spend his days at his typewriter and his nights at the
library, reading. Since he needed a way to make some money to get by, Ray
took a job selling newspapers on Los Angeles street corners. His
first published story was ?Hollerbocher?s Dilemma,? which was printed in
an amateur fan magazine in 1938. In 1939, Ray published four issues of
Futuria Fantasia, his own fan magazine, in which he contributed most of the
published material. Bradbury?s first paying gig, was ?Pendulum,? which was
published in Super Science Stories in 1941. Finally in 1942 he discovered
his distinctive style of writing after writing ?The Lake.? By 1943 he had
given up selling newspapers, and began a full-time job as a free lance write
for many periodicals. In 1945 the magazine Best American Short Stories,
selected Bradbury?s short story ?The Big Black and White Game,? to appear
in an issue of the magazine. Bradbury?s most significant published works
up until the present include: Dark Carnival in 1947, The Martian Chronicles
in 1950, Fahrenheit 451 in 1953, and many short stories, screenplays, essays
and poems which are too numerous to name.
Ray Bradbury?s writing has been critically acclaimed and heralded as
some of the most influential media in the Science-Fiction genre. So far is his
lifetime Ray has received the O. Henry Memorial Award, the Benjamin
Franklin award in 1954, the Aviation-Space Writer?s Association Award for
best article in an American Magazine in 1967, the World Fantasy Award for
lifetime achievement, and the Grand Master Award from the Science-Fiction
Writers of America. Also his animated film about the history of flight,
Icarus Montgolfier Wright, was nominated for an Oscar, and his teleplay of
the Halloween Tree won an emmy. Presently, Ray Bradbury resides in San
Diego, California, where he still writes and gives lectures.
The Martian Chronicles
The book of Bradbury?s creation that I read was the Martian
Chronicles. Initially, I was intrigued by Ray Bradbury?s implementation of
elaborately descriptive settings. Each chronicle takes place during a different
month and year, arranged in chronological order, from January 1999 to
October 2026. Since the story spans over a long period of time, there are
several locations in which the events occur. The major settings of the story
include: Ohio, a small town next to the rocket launch pad, a large desert on
Mars, with canals, that is a harbor to the ?dead cities,? a town on Mars
which is the home of Yll and Ylla , the Martian landing site next to one of
the canals, a Martian insane asylum, a town, that seems almost dreamlike in
a sense, because it is the memories of the flight crew projected onto the
Martian landscape, a luggage shop, and a city surrounded by rural farm area,
that has only one house left standing. These settings are used as a device to
move the novel along from each individual story to the next. I think that this
was a very interesting concept, because there are no main characters in the
However, there are main characters within each chronicle. Ylla is the
first Martian introduced in the book; she is friendly, kind, and has an
outgoing personality. James Stupple indicated in his book The Past, The
Future, and Ray Bradbury that Ylla seems to lack love for her husband Yll. I
agree with his opinion since, she has dreams of Captain York constantly.
This triggers Yll to become jealous and destroy the Earth rocket.
Coincidentally, similar things happen in all Societies on different levels. For
Example: In America, adultery is constantly in the news. Our own President
is a repeat offender. What would possess some one to disobey the norms and
values upon which our society is based, in such a disgusting and appalling
way? Personally, I think that the idea of the chaos theory plays a role here,
hence nothing can be perfect and all people feel the urge to self-destruct
through misdemeanor. It seems almost that Bradbury drew Ylla?s internal
conflict from that theory. Captain Black was one of the leaders of the Earth
crew. He was old, experienced, and had many years of wisdom to recall
upon when needed. Captain Black has the uncanny ability to rethink
problems over and over again until he finds the answer. I see myself to be
similar to him in that sense. I am not able to let predicaments be, I must
take as much time as needed to find a resolution to the problem at hand.
Edward Black is the Martian who is responsible for keeping Captain
Black deceived about the ?dream town.? Edward is extremely intelligent and
able to read minds. He incorporated the Captain?s memories into a town on
the Martian landscape. I believe that the preceding example supports the
commentary made by Kingsley Amis, in his book New Maps of Hell. Amis
stated that one of the prevalent themes in Bradbury?s works, was that
?Though the past, or stasis, or both is enticing, it may be deadly as well.?
Ray Bradbury supported the idea of the melting pot theory, in which
everyone who is new to a society must give up his or her past, and blend into
the culture as well as except the values and norms of the dominant group in
the society. Evidently, the melting pot theory has existed since our ancestors
migrated here from Europe. They came here in yield of promise and
opportunity, but found that Nativism and racial prejudice would control their
lives. They would be forced to conform to American culture, or they would
never be able to succeed in their endeavors. Hence, in order to seize a
meaningful future, you must reject the past.
Tomas Gomez is a human being, that adds an interesting twist to the
story. He in contrast to the other human characters in the literature is open-
minded to the Martian culture. He does not pass judgment on the different
opinions, different vehicles, and appearance of the Martians. Tomas seems
to be the definitive ray of hope in the piece. He is used as a symbolic
representation of racial equality between Martians and humans. Mr. Teece,
on the other hand, is the exact opposite of Gomez. Teece always needs to
feel superior to everyone around him. He is a horrible husband to his wife,
and holds a magnitude of prejudices against the white men. In fact at nights
he and his friends, shoot and sometimes maul white men to their bloody
deaths. If Tomas Gomez were North, then Mr. Teece would be the
equivalent of South. Teece is symbolic of the racial hate groups that exist in
our Society. The groups are based on a strong belief that their ways of life
are more important than that of any other group. Therefore, a parallel can be
drawn between Teece and racial hate groups.
Stendahl represents the typical 1st amendment activist. He is
passionate about his ideas of free thinking. Stendahl uses his creativity, and
imagination to express his ideas to everyone in anyway possible. The
summation of his abilities lie in the walls of the House of Usher, a temple of
horror which he created, in homage to the writings of Edgar Allen Poe, to
express his ideas. Hathaway much like Stendahl is extremely
intelligent, and self reliant. Hathaway replaced his family with robots that
were incapable of sadness. All though he could be considered insane,
Hathaway was in touch with reality.
The two recurrent conflicts in The Martian Chronicles are social
and ideological. From the ideological standpoint, a conflict arose about the
conformity of Mars to suit the Earth people. Splender, one of the Martian
leaders, believes that Mars should be kept as it is, and not changed to
accommodate the people from Earth. He refused to compromise, and
decided to kill any human that he could find. The captain of the Martians
believed in Splender?s views after meeting with him, but knew that it was
his duty as captain to compromise with the Earthlings. The social conflict
was between Stendahl, and the censors. Stendahl believed in free thinking
and fantasy books. He rebelled against the censors by building the House of
Usher. Garrett, the head of the censors, sent a robot to kill Stendahl.
However, Stendahl killed the robot, and sent back one that looked like
himself. Thus, luring Garrett into a death trap.
Amidst the elaborate settings, symbolic characters, and crucial
conflicts, Bradbury established two dominant themes. The first of the
themes is that when the real and unreal conjoin, its result will be disaster.
Throughout the book when the Earth crew members were deceived by
hallucinations, they inevitably died. For example, when Edward Black
created the ?dream town? from the memories of the crew, they were trapped,
and left to die. The second theme is that, if technology is misused or
overused, then it will destroy nature. This is exemplified in the destruction
of Earth. Man felt a need to build and create new things just because,
something could be built. The need to do so ultimately destroyed the earth.
In conclusion, Ray Bradbury?s the Martian Chronicles, contains
some of the most important Sociological issues in America today. He deals
with the issues of freedom of speech, racism, prejudice and conformity.
All though there are not any major characters that consistently appear
throughout the story, the major characters within each chronicles are used
symbolically to support his themes. Finally, Ray Bradbury uses descriptive
settings to tie all of the chronicles together.
- Ray Bradbury Essay, Research Paper Ray Bradbury Ray Bradbury was a dreamer. Bradbury had a skill at putting his dreams onto paper, ... son the middle name Douglas because of Douglas Fairbanks, and she ... of twenty dollars for each story.” Bradbury sold his first ...
- Dandelion Wine Essay, Research Paper Dandelion Wine is a book written by Ray Bradbury. Dandelion Wine is ... like a plant losing its scion. Douglas has a younger brother, Tom. Being ... time. With that Douglas becomes more mature. Douglas also learns many things ...
- Dialogue Of Death Essay, Research Paper The Death Penalty seems ... like William Davis and Douglas Gray, who escaped form ... the people on Death Row, rather than their family ... www.prodeathpenalty.com/affirmation.htm Bradbury, Michael. http://www.prodeathpenalty ...
- ... , and Poe. Some could forget Ray Bradbury whom Douglas J. McReynolds calls ” A genius as ... ignored Bradbury’s particular skill at committing his dreams to paper and in ... work apart. Douglas J. McReynolds reminds us “The strength of a Bradbury story is ...
- Ray Bradbury’s Genius Essay, Research Paper Rocket. That must have been Ray Bradbury’s first word. The word “ ... (at least I think so). Born Ray Douglas Bradbury on August 22, 1920 in ... Press 1990. Pages used: 979. 6. Ray Bradbury Biography; http://126.96.36.199 ...