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Athena Essay, Research Paper

Athena

Back in time when Greece was making its mark in history as one of the

great civilization of the Ancient World, there was a great deal of emphasis on the

Gods and Goddesses. To the Greeks the world was governed by the Gods and they

were the reason many things happened in the world, mostly thing that where

unexplainable. The goddess Athena was one of the many gods or goddesses that

played a large role in Greek mythology. Even though Athena was the patron saint

of Athens she supported other Greeks outside of Athens, such as, Achilles,

Orestes, and especially Odysseus (?Athena?-1).

Athena is know to be the goddess of war, guardian of cities, patroness of

arts and crafts, and promoter of wisdom (?Images of Women…?-1). Athena?s

name actually came form the Cretan and Mycenean name Athene which predates

the Greeks by about 1,500 years (Daly-20). The ending ?-ene,? was set aside for

royalty and goddesses, like Helene (Harris-4). She was also called by some Greeks

as Pallas Athena. Not many people know where the name Pallas came from.

Some legends say she obtained it from the giant Pallas that she killed in the war of

the gods and giants (Grant-Hazel 83). Another legend says that Athena

accidentally killed her childhood playmate Pallas. By taking Pallas? in front of her

own, Athena shows the grief that she endured for the loss of her friend (Daly-20).

Athena had such an impact on the Greeks that the Romans adopted her and called

her Minerva (?Minerva?-1).

The origins of Athena?s name is not the only discrepancy that historians

have had. The origin of where Athena came form is also a discrepancy. Zeus

feared that he would be overcome by a son greater than he born from the

intelligent Metis. To prevent this Zeus ate Metis. There for, Athena, in the most

common legend, was born fully grown out of Zeus?s head after Hephaestus split it

open with an ax. Another legend, this one form Crete, says Athena was hidden in

a cloud. Zeus hit his head on the cloud and caused Athena to appear (Daly-20).

Out of all the cities that Athena helped and protected Athens claimed her as

there own. The Atheans believed that the first king of Athens, Erichthonius, was a

descendant of Athena (Daly-20). Even though Poseidon was greedy of earthy

kingdoms, he challenged Athena for the city. The both of them appeared before

the court of gods and goddess to make a judgment. Poseidon presented water to be

of use to the Atheans. But the water was salty. Athena presented the olive tree

which gave fruit, oil and wood. The court judged that this was a more beneficial

gift and let Athena have the city (Daly-100).

To show their homage, the Atheans, built the Parthenon. The word

Parthenon means virgin?s place, for Athena was a virgin goddess (?Parthenon?-1).

The east side of the building showed the birth of Athena and the west side showed

the contest with Poseidon (?Athena?-1).

Atheans, on the other hand, were not the only people Athena favored.

According to Homer the Greeks were greatly benefited when Athena came down

from the heavens and stopped Achilles of Phthia from killing Agamemnon.

Achilles protested but Athena replied:

Down from the skies I come to check your rage if

only you would yield…Stop this fighting,

now…Don?t lay hand to sword…I know it is the

truth-one day glittering gifts will lie before you,

three times over to pay for all his outrage. Hold

pack now. Obey… (Homer-104)

Even though Athena was the patroness of war she also had compassion for the

Greeks. Athena new if Achilles had killed Agamemnon that would certainly mean

defeat for the Greeks. Athena was ruthless, manipulative, savage, and found

delight in Trojan blood (?Athena, daughter of Zues?-1).

Athena also is credited with helping a young man that was on trial in

Athens for killing his mother. This young man was Orestes and his mother

Clytemnestra, both form Argos. Athena having no mother had more compassion

for the male figure than female. She considered the crimes of Clytemnestra

(killing her husband, Agamemnon) more punishable than Orestes crime

(Parada-2). Aeschylus seems to sum it up in Athena?s speech to the court in The

Oresteia. ?The Eumenides.?

…No mother gave me birth. I honor the male , in all

things but marriage. Yes, with all my heart I am my

Father?s child. I cannot set more store by the

women?s death-she killed her husband, guardian of

their house…(644)

With this trial Athena presented a new form of justice, trial by jury. The jury had

voted equally but Athena broke the deadlock with a innocent vote setting Orestes

free.

But of all the people Athena helped, Odysseus was the Greek that she liked

the most. According to Kathleen Daly, author of Greek and Roman Mythology

A-Z, Athena displays her ?unique intellectual qualities? the best in Homer?s

Odyssey (20). If it was not for her help and guidance Odysseus would have never

reached his beloved Ithaka.

With all the phenomenon?s that were unexplainable in the ancient world;

mythology was able to shed some light on the subject. By today?s standards these

mythological explanations seem a little far fetched. But for the time,

accomplishments and triumphs that many Greeks made where do to the help of the

gods like the wise Athena. She saved Greece from being defeated by holding back

the anger of Achilles. A new form of government was established thanks to

Athena?s idea of trial by jury which allowed Orestes to go free. She also helped

the mighty Odysseus find his path home. In respect, Athena was a goddess that

was for all of Greece not just a single city. This made her one of the more

favorable goddess and for this she was paid much homage.

Aeschylus. ?The Eumendies.? Vol I of The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces.

Ed. Maynard Mack, et al. 6th Ed. 2 vols. New York: Norton, 1985: 1991.

?Athena.? Classic Athena Page.: n. pag. Online. Internet. 21 Oct. 1999. Available

World Wide Web: http://www.princeton.edu/~rhwebb/athena.html.

?Athena, daughter of Zeus.?: n. pag. Online. Internet. 21 Oct. 1999. Available World

Wide Web: http://www-st.towson.edu/~dbaker2/.

Daly, Kathleen N. Greek and Roman Mythology A-Z. New York, NY.: Facts on File,

Inc., 1992.

Grant, Michael, John Hazel. Gods and Mortals in Classical Mythology. Springfield,

Mass.: G. &C. Merriam Company, 1973.

Harris, William. ?A Humanist and His Writing.?: n. pag. Online. Internet. 21 Oct.

1999. Available World Wide Web:

http://www.middlebury.edu/~harris/GreekMyth/Chap2Women.html.

Homer. ?Iliad.? Vol I of The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Ed. Maynard

Mack, et al. 6th Ed. 2 vols. New York: Norton, 1985: 1991.

?Images of Women and Goddesses.? The Ancient Greek World- Women and Goddessess

Exerpts.: n. pag. Online. Internet. 26 Oct. 1999. Available World Wide Web:

http://www.museum.upenn.edu/greek_World…s_Other/Women%26Goddesses_e

xerpts.html.

?Minerva.? HistoryChannel.com.: n. pag. Online. Internet. 25 Oct. 1999. Available

World Wide Web:

wysiwyg://index.108/http://www.historychannel.com/perl/print_book.pl?ID=2527

3

Parada, Carlos. ?Athena.? Greek Mythology Link.: n. pag. Online. Internet. 21 Oct.

1999. Available World Wide Web: http://hsa.brown.edu/~maicar/Athena.html.

?Parthenon.? HistoryChannel.com.: n. pag. Online. Internet. 25 Oct. 1999. Available

World Wide Web:

wysiwyg://index.108/http://www.historychannel.com/perl/print_book.pl?ID=2523

3.


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