Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
Cattle Tick Essay, Research Paper
Nature of the disease
The cattle tick Boophilus microplus is a significant ectoparasite of cattle and a vector for important diseases such as babesiosis
SPC List D disease
B. microplus is primarily a parasite of cattle. However, heavy infestations can also occur on horses, sheep, deer and water
buffalo. Rarely, ticks have been reported on marsupials, goats, dogs, cats and pigs.
Where it occurs
The cattle tick is widely distributed in Central and South America, parts of the southern USA, Africa, Asia, and northern
Australia. The distribution of the cattle tick is largely determined by climatic factors. B. microplus requires high humidity and
ambient temperatures of at least 15-20o C for egg laying and hatching.
Cattle tick infestation causes:
? damage to hides
? loss of production
? anaemia and death
? weakness leading to greater mortalities during droughts
Animals may be in poor condition, anaemic. Infestations will be obvious by the presence of engorged ticks attached to the
Several species of ticks may be found on cattle and it is important to differentiate these from B. microplus. Other ticks include:
? Haemophysalis sp..
? Ixodes holocyclus
Specimens required for diagnosis
Ticks should be collected and forwarded to an entomologist for confirmation of the diagnosis. B. microplus has pale legs, short
mouth parts with transversely ridged palps, small eyes and lacks an anal groove.
The life cycle involves free-living stages. After feeding on cattle, engorged female ticks drop to the ground and lay eggs (up to
5000). After hatching, the larvae survive on pasture for several months. The larvae then become quite active and climb up grass
and transfer to animals as they brush past. The larvae attach and feed from the host. They moult to the nymphal stage and then
undergo a further moult to the adult stage.
Risk of introduction
Cattle ticks are most likely to be introduced with the importation of infested cattle. Cattle tick was introduced to New
Caledonia with cattle imported from Australia in this way.
Transport of ticks on dogs is considered a potential risk for introducing the tick to new areas, although egg production is much
reduced in this species and the risk is considered low.
Control / vaccines
There are four methods available for controlling ticks:
1. treatment with acaricides
2. pasture spelling
3. the use of resistant cattle
Tick control by acaracide dipping has been widely used in endemic areas. Acaracides used for this purpose include various
synthetic pyrethroids, amitraz, and some organophosphates. Dipping may have to be done as frequently as every 4-6 weeks in
heavily infested areas. Many producers in tick endemic area have changed to Bos indicus type cattle because of their greater
resistance to tick infection.
An anti-tick vaccine is also commercially available in Australia. The vaccine antigen, based on a tick gut protein and produced
by recombinant technology, stimulates production of specific antibodies in cattle which damage the gut of engorging ticks,
resulting in a fertility reduction of up to 70% in adult ticks, reducing tick population build-up. This vaccine is of limited use, but can be used as part of an integrated program for the control of ticks.
Each year 150 million dollars is lost to Australia’s beef and dairy industries because of cattle tick infecting
our cattle. Cattle ticks are ecto-parasites which live in the coat of the cattle and suck their blood. By doing
this, many diseases like tick fever can be transferred causing poor health, and the effects can be fatal.
Tick fever is a malaria-like disease and is described by Peter Willadsen as having produced “one of the
biggest disasters in our agricultural history.”
It is not unusual for 1000 female ticks to be found on one cow
at a time. Together they can suck more than ? a litre of blood
in one day. The female ticks then drop to the ground to
reproduce producing another cycle of ticks to infest cattle.
Control for diseases caused by these ticks has to be
continually kept under control. Right now, farmers immerse
their cattle in toxic chemicals to get rid of the ticks. However,
this raises the issue of having these toxic chemicals remain in
the beef, and having toxic waste in the environment. More
alarming, cattle ticks have an amazing history of becoming
resistant to the chemicals used to kill them. It is only a matter of time before the ticks become resistant to
the chemicals being used today.
Due to this, a new vaccine called TickGARD (which is
based on the BM86 protein from the ticks’ gut) is being
introduced. When the tick tries to feed off the cow by
’sucking its blood’ the inside of the tick becomes confused
when the blood from the cow is recognised as blood from
a tick due to the use of TickGARD for the cow. The walls
retract and the blood is released into the rest of the tick
including the arms and the legs. This method cuts down
their survival rate and most importantly makes it less likely
for the tick to reproduce. It does not eradicate the ticks but
they do become severely impaired and have a much
shortened and more difficult life span due to this. Peter Willadsen has said ‘We estimate an overall
reduction of up to 70% in tick fertility using TickGARD. In an integrated control program it should cut the
need for chemical treatments by between two and three applications per season.’ Genetic engineering is
required for the vaccine because to produce Tickgard around 20,000 ticks are needed. This is a difficult
demand to keep up with and so instead of breeding the cattle ticks the traditional way the ticks are
genetically engineered as this is a faster easier method.
A specific antigen is needed to be found and isolated from samples which
are taken from the gut of a tick. The antigen needed was a protein which
triggers the immunity sytem. To isolate the particular protein it had to be
identified from about ten thousand proteins found in the gut. Once the
particular gene is isolated from the tick it is put into the bacterium which
then produces a synthetic antigen. Lastly, this synthetic antigen is inserted
into a stable vaccine.
- Texas Cattle Drives Essay, Research Paper Cattle drives are the stuff ... trails and eventually leading cattle to the train and stockyards ... years ago could have imagined. Take a look at the Chicago ... , learn how to read those mysterious hand signals used by ...
- Essay Essay, Research Paper Introduction Global warming is not ... I will explore these studies in the body of my paper. You will ... This still occurs even though the production has almost stopped ... rice paddies and cattle farms give off methane . These are just a ...
- The Cattle Essay, Research Paper The Cattle The cattle are domesticated herbivorous mammals that ... then probably increase with each generation of cattle. Thus the population of this ... breed of cattle would greatly ...
- Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Essay, Research Paper Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Bovine spongiform ... also occurred in cattle from the country of Oman. These animals were ... BSE infection in the cattle population requires that each breeding cow is ...
- Reforestation In Brazil Essay, Research Paper During the past ... forests include road construction, cattle ranching, and the production ... the initiation of these programs. Cattle ranching is the ... the Amazon rainforest, each and everyone mush take a part in ...