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- William Shakespeare was born in April, 1564 in Stratford, Warwickshire, about 100 miles northwest of London. According to the records of Stratford’s Holy Trinity Church, he was baptized on April 26. Since it was customary to baptize infants within days of birth, and since Shakespeare died 52 years later on April 23, and–most significantly–since April 23 is St.
- ? (Halliday. 17) The reason that there are so many critics is that there are just as many theories and speculations. Even in the twentieth century on could create or ?discover? a new theory or criticism based on the play or it?s characters.
- It is full of corruption, deceit, passion, ruthlessness, and ambition that Hamlet is not used to (Lidz, 71). His mind temporarily can not handle his situation because, as I will mention later, his mother is at the center of it.
- Thesis: Shakespeare used the same definition of tragedy when he wrote Macbeth, and when he wrote Hamlet; Shakespearean tragedies use supernatural incidents to intrigue the reader’s interest, and his plays consist of a hero that has a tragic flaw (sometimes the want for the supernatural) which causes him to make a fatal mistake.
- The study of Shakespeare’s Hamlet has been one that is very extensive as well as enormous. Books upon books have been written about this great play. About an equal amount of books, however, have been written about one character; Hamlet. A critic of Hamlet once said, “a man set out to read all the books about Hamlet would have time to read nothing else, not even Hamlet.
- Thesis: William Shakespeare, one of the greatest dramatists in the world, has been famous and well known since the early 1600’s. Some of his greatest works have been reproduced hundreds of times. He wrote poems, sonnets, plays, tragedies, histories, and comedies.
- Tom Stoppard is one of the twentieth century’s most interesting and creative playwrights. He uses his art form to criticize society’s inability to handle the thought that we are governed by chaos. The modern world has created fate as an excuse for not doing anything to shape or change our outcome.
- Agrippina was the daughter of the elder Agrippina, sister of the emperor Gaius, or Caligula (37–41), and wife of the emperor Claudius (41–54). She had been exiled in 39 for taking part in a conspiracy against Gaius but was allowed to return to Rome in 41.
- Theater unites the past and present in a unique cultural experience. Theatre continues to thrive and has become an important subject for study in schools and universities. Reaching back in time and across the world, this ranging new history draws on the latest scholarly research to describe and celebrate theatre?s greatest achievements over 4,500 years, from festival performances in Egypt to international multicultural theatre in the late twentieth century.
- WWII INVOLVMENT OF ARTS IN WORLD WAR II OUTLINE: Thesis: During W.W.II, there was a great effort on the home front to help keep up morale of the troops and to provide support in any way possible. One very effective way to support the troops was by use of arts including movie stars, singers, actors, and actresses.
- During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, England underwent a dramatic change in priorities. The importance of art and literature became highly prevalent. The impact of the Elizabethan drama and style still influences culture. It changed altered it into what it modern literature and theater is today.
- William Faulkner is recognized by most individuals as one of the greatest American writers of all times. Though only a limited amount about his life before 1950 is known, critics such as Edmond Volpe have linked his experiences, beginning with his childhood, to many of his fictional works.
- In the play Hamlet, Hamlet pretends to be a mad. Hamlet pretends hoping that others will ignore his actions, but instead it drew more interest from people. 1)Hemlet’s madness probably aroused the suspicions of the king . 2)Because people were trying to figure out why he was acting mad, people paid more close attention to Hamlet.
- Let me tell you a story of two young lovers torn apart by the wrath of their parents? oh, you’ve heard this one already? How about the story of the evil villain plotting to overthrow his king? Heard that one too? Surprisingly enough, these stories came into creation over two hundred years ago.
- Protestant princes would govern Prtestant states, Catholic princes Catholic states. 5. Bill of rights.- The English constitutional settlement of 1 89, confirming the deposition of James II and the accession of William and Mary, guaranteeing the Protestant succession, and laying down the principles of parliamentary supremacy.
- who chooses the programs to be watched? Do children accept the racial stereotypes they see on television? Do they accept the national and religious stereotypes? Do children in different socioeconomic statuses typically have different habits of watching television? Do intelligent children differ from not so bright children in their use of television? Which techniques of television production increase children’s interest and attentiveness? Can young children watch television while simultaneously engaging in activities not related to television? Do children accept the stereotypes of occupations presented on television? (Murray 1) These are just some of the questions that researchers have tried to answer over the years pertaining to children and television. In today’s media age, it is no surprise that people are becoming more and more concerned with how television can affect children. Television is often referred to as the ‘electronic babysitter’ because it is often used to entertain children when parents have other things that they need to do. From my own experiences and observations I can say with great certainty that television is becoming more and more a part of the lives of children. That is why I chose this topic for my thesis. It is important that going into an industry like broadcasting I am aware that the things people take for granted when putting shows on the air may have a profound (or not so profound) impact on someone’s life. Television can have a positive or negative impact on a child. It all depends on many different levels of variables. These variables can include gender, socioeconomic status, race, religion, age, hair color, or anything else that may make one person different from another. For example, a girl with blond hair may feel that she too may not be so bright after viewing an episode of Married with Children. This example, although a bit far-fetched, demonstrates the idea of how children’ s views of themselves may be effected by television. There are many classic examples that people can use when trying to argue that television can have a negative impact on children. One example that I’m sure most people are familiar with is the case in which a five-year-old Ohio boy set his trailer home on fire, killing his baby sister. His mother immediately blamed the incident on the animated MTV show Beavis and Butthead, a show that features two teenage boys prone to bouts of pyromania. MTV argued that Beavis and Butthead come on late in the evening, usually after 10 PM. At that time of night, what the child was watching should have been being monitored because most shows that are on that late at night are intended for more mature audiences. That raises another age-old question. How much responsibility is to be placed on the broadcasters and how much should be placed on the parents? Rightfully so, if parents want their children to watch educational shows on television they should be available. However, should broadcasters have to limit what they show on television because of children? As I did my research for this paper, I set out to find research that proves that television can have a positive effect on children. I did find research to substantiate this, which I will get into later on in the paper, but first I want to discuss why I chose to go that route. I think that it is easy to blame television or, the media in general for the plagues that ail society today. As a young woman choosing to go into this field, I don’t feel that this is necessarily the case at all. I do think that the media should take some responsibility for what they show, but they are not totally to blame for the problems in society. Technology, Television and Society – A brief summary of how television (and other forms of mass media get integrated into society, and the effect that they cause) Media is presented through various forms of technology. As new technology is introduced, we as a society must either adapt to it or we could end up being left behind. According to media researcher Cecilia Tichi, new technological advancements go through three stages of socialization while being integrated into our day to day lives. The three stages are: 1. Initiation . Naturalization 3. Defamiliarization The introduction of a new technology medium is referred to as initiation. This is not an easy process as the vast majority of people are resistant to change. The new medium remains a mystery to many people until they are able to overcome their fears of it. The introduction of television in the early forties provided confusion and apprehension. People were accustomed to hearing stories on the radio and now suddenly they could visually watch them too. This was too much for many people to digest. The fear of television was not only of what could be seen, but also of the actual set itself. Something about having this large box in their living room caused a sense unease. Much of the uneasy feelings which were felt, were forms of fear. Fear of what role the television would play in their lives, how it would affect their family, what type of morals would it teach, and exactly what it was. After all, TV was known as the “biggest window in the world.” Dumont attempted to overcome these fears by creating an advertising company to inform the public and educate. This was all in attempt to help the people understand the role television could play in their lives. Naturalization is the biggest stage in a medium’s life. Once a medium is integrated into our lives, this form of technology becomes part of the natural order in our day to day activities. At this point the medium affects language, social norms, and can even replace human interaction. How can a technological medium affect our language you say? We all can remember the movie “Valley Girl,” if not, perhaps the more recent movie “Clueless.” These movies encoded new phrases such as “What-ever” and “As if!” which were quickly integrated into day to day conversation, therefore causing a change in our language and in human interaction. Television affected social norms. TV guide published a list of etiquette rules for unwanted guests who stopped by to watch TV in the early to mid-sixties. Television also created a whole new form of dining with Campbell’s introduction of TV dinners in the 0’s. Instead of dinner at the dining room table, people began eating TV dinners on their shiny new TV trays right in front of the television. Television can all be used to replace human interaction. An example of decreased human interaction that I mentioned earlier is when people allow their television to act as a babysitter for their children. Barney (as annoying as some adults find him) is now available to tell night-time bedtime stories to children by simply popping a tape into the VCR. Once the medium has been naturally integrated into our lives, there comes a time when we want more. We become bored with the same old shows, programming, actors, content and demand to see more. How do we make our demands? Well, several ways. But mainly by not tuning in. In response to these demands, formats are constantly being changed, programs upgraded, and new approaches to the same medium are being created. All of this happens to inspire new interest in the medium, or for companies to keep the advantage against competitors. These three stages of interaction are constantly occurring at different levels for all mediums. Economic status has the largest bearing on which stage a person is in. For example, the new HDTV (High Definition Television). I’m sure that when the price decreases, as with most electronic or technologically advanced items, the popularity of them will increase. People just have to be able to afford them first. Children, Television and Violence Whenever the thought of how television affects children pops into someone’s mind, the first thing that they think about is the amount of violence on television. Most mass communication scientists, as well as most people in general tend to feel that the more violence a child witnesses on television, the more aggressive he or she becomes. Over 1 studies have been done to confirm this link. People believe that essentially, media violence legitimizes and contributes to a culture of violence and the acceptance of violence as an effective solution to problems. The National Coalition on Television Violence have created media violence guidelines which describe violent acts as those that involve an agent and a victim, contain an expression of overt force, and are committed with deliberate and hostile intent. NCTV guidelines do not include accidents, emotional displays, horseplay, slapstick, treats, and sports activities as acts of violence. Accepting this definition of media violence, it is said that by age 18, the average American child will have viewed about 00, acts of violence on television alone. The level of violence during Saturday morning cartoons is higher than the level of violence during prime time. There are 3 to 5 violent acts per hour in prime time, versus 0 to 5 acts per hour on Saturday morning. One of the major problems with television violence, especially in cartoons, is that it fails to show the consequences of violence. As a result, children don’t learn the real consequences of violence. Whether or not television violence produces violent people is disputable. Media violence, in my opinion, can not be said to have a direct effect on viewer actions. However, many people share the abundance of violence does have an effect on our mental well being. Such messages reinforce beliefs that the world is a violent and generally unsafe place, violence is an effective solution to problems, and violence is safe, gratifying, glamorous, and again, often have no apparent consequences. Albert Bandura, a professor at Stanford University, did one of the first experiments that dealt with trying to prove the relationship between violence on television and aggression in children. Bandura showed a clip of a man beating a “bobo” doll to a number of children. He then left the each child alone in a room with a “bobo” doll. At one point the children would start to beat up the doll, reenacting what they had saw being done in the clip. A case study done by Aletha Huston-Stein and her colleagues assessed the effects of viewing both violent or nonviolent (prosocial) television programming. In this study, about one hundred pre-school aged children enrolled in a nursery school at Penn State University were divided into three groups and were assigned to watch a particular diet of programming. The children watched either a diet of Batman and Superman cartoons, a diet of Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, or a diet of neutral programming (programs designed for pre-schoolers that contained neither violence nor prosocial messages). Huston-Stein and her colleagues observed the youngsters on the playground and in the classroom for two weeks to assess the level of aggressive and helpful behavior displayed by the children. Then the children viewed the program diet one half hour a day, three days a week for four weeks. They watched twelve half-hour episodes of the diet to which they were assigned. The researched found that the youngsters who watched the Batman and Superman cartoons were more physically active, both in the classroom and on the playground. Also, they were more likely to get into fights and arguments with each other, play roughly with toys, break toys, snatch toys from others, and get into little altercations. No mass murders broke out, but they were simply more aggressive and had more aggressive encounters. The other group that watched Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood was much more likely to play cooperatively with their toys, spontaneously offer to help the teacher, and engage in what might be called “positive peer counseling”. In this latter instance, the focus of Mister Rogers’ sessions was similar to peer counseling. That is being kind, being sensitive to others needs, and being concerned about others feelings. For example, Fred Rogers might suggest that if someone looks sad, you could say, “Gee, you look sad today, are you feeling okay? Do you want to go play or do something?” The group that watched the neutral programming was neither more aggressive nor more helpful. However, what is interesting about this study is that it shows both sides of the coin. What children watch does affect them, both positively, as in the case of the children who watched Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, and negatively, as in the case of the children who watched the Batman and Superman cartoons. (Murray ) There is a wide range of studies similar to the Bandura and Huston-Stein project that addresses the short-term effects of children viewing violence. Children, Television and Literacy One theory that interested me when it came to children, television and literacy is the interest stimulation theory. This theory looks at television as a positive thing in the lives of children. According to this theory, television introduces children to new ideas and topics that they ordinarily might not get exposed to. In turn, if the presentation of the idea is done interestingly enough it sparks the child’s interest in the topic causing him or her to go out seeking more information about this. Television’s persuaders and entertainers opened up new gateways of learning for children. No longer were they confined to their immediate environment. With television, many of the conceptual and logical barriers to extending children’s experiences posed by other media were virtually swept away. Its very accessibility meant that children were exposed to ideas, events, and places that were once reserved for adults alone. The interest stimulation theory proposes that television can enhance learning by stimulating children’s interests, therefore creating a hunger for further information. For example, once having viewed a program on a given topic, children will be more likely to display a greater interest in the classroom. Similarly, they will read a book if they have seen the movie or the television show based on it. This theory implicitly states that interests lead to action. In this respect, the benefits of television are potentially two-fold. By stimulating new interests, young viewers will gain knowledge and then try to obtain even further knowledge on these same topics. Exactly what kinds of interests does television spark? Hope that television might stimulate children to learn about topics as unexpected as archeology were countered by the corresponding fear that they might be learning the wrong kinds of things. The interest stimulation theory, therefore, has undergone a rather complex history. Initial research focused on the interests and knowledge gained incidentally through television. Himmelweit, Oppenheim, and Vince (1958), for example, analyzed the extent to which television stimulated children to take up new hobbies and interests. The 1970’s and early 1980’s, however saw an unprecedented effort to use television intentionally as a powerful motivating force to influence the learning goals in the schools. Here, teachers were encouraged to directly intervene by linking children’s interest in television and specific areas of school curricula such as social studies and language arts. (Literacy ) There have been many instances in which I have seen this theory put into practice. One such way that I saw is called ‘Cable in the Classroom’. Although it usually comes on at weird hours of the morning, educators (teachers, principles, etc.) are encouraged to tape these shows and show them in the classroom to spark interest and discussion. The topics of these programs can range from ‘the dangers of drugs’ to the history of spiders’. Conclusion Television as a medium is neither good nor bad; its effects and value depend on the types of programs broadcast and the ways in which they are used by viewers. Television viewing is not inherently passive. Children are often cognitively active while they view; they make choices about when and what to watch that depend on their understanding and interests. Nevertheless, in the early years, children’s exposure to television depends most importantly on their families. In turn, family patterns are partly governed by the social institutions and conditions in which they live. Again those variables like socioeconomic status and just the living environment are very pertinent to how television can affect children. The early years are a critical time for the socialization of television viewing habits. Children learn about what to watch and how much to watch through the example set by parents. Much of their exposure to adult programs is a direct result of viewing choices made by others in their families. Parents who are selective or restrictive influence their children’s viewing patterns, but their own viewing also serves as a powerful model for their children. Although families are crucial mediators of their children’s exposure to television, their choices are constrained by decisions in the broadcasting industry about what to produce and broadcast and by the time requirements of jobs and schools. If television is to become a more positive force for children’s development, the industry has a responsibility f