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English Grammar in Use.
A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students.
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
To the student viii
To the teacher ix
Present and past
1 Present continuous (I am doing)
2 Present simple (I do)
3 Present continuous and present simple (1) (I am doing and I do)
4 Present continuous and present simple (2) (I am doing and I do)
5 Past simple (I did)
6 Past continuous (I was doing)
Present perfect and past
7 Present perfect (1) (I have done)
8 Present perfect (2) (I have done)
9 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing)
10 Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done)
11 How long have you (been) ...?
12 When ...? and How long ...? For and since
13 Present perfect and past (1) (I have done and I did)
14 Present perfect and past (2) (I have done and I did)
15 Past perfect (I had done)
16 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing)
17 Have and have got
18 Used to (do)
19 Present tenses (I am doing/I do) for the future
20 (I'm) going to (do)
21 Will/shall (1)
22 Will/shall (2)
23 I will and I'm going to
24 Will be doing and will have done
25 When I do/When I've done When and if
26 Can, could and (be) able to
27 Could (do) and could have (done)
28 Must and can't
29 May and might (1)
30 May and might (2)
31 Must and have to
32 Must mustn't needn't
33 Should (1)
34 Should (2)
35 Had better It's time ...
36 Can/Could/Would you ...? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations)
Conditionals and 'wish'
37 If I do ... and If I did ...
38 If I knew ... I wish I knew ...
39 If I had known ... I wish I had known ...
40 Would I wish ... would
41 Passive (1) (is done/was done)
42 Passive (2) (be/been/being done)
43 Passive (3)
44 It is said that ... He is said to ... (be) supposed to ...
45 Have something done
46 Reported speech (1) (He said that ...
47 Reported speech (2)
Questions and auxiliary verbs
48 Questions (1)
49 Questions (2) (Do you know where ...? I She asked me where ...
50 Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so I hope so etc.
51 Question tags (do you? isn't it? etc.)
~ing and the infinitive
52 Verb + ~ing (enjoy doing/stop doing etc.)
53 Verb + to ... (decide to do/forget to do etc.)
54 Verb + (object) + to ... (I want (you) to do etc.)
55 Verb + ~ing or to ... (1) (remember/regret etc.)
56 Verb + ~ing or to ... (2) (try/need/help)
57 Verb + ~ing or to ... (3) (like/would like etc.)
58 Prefer and would rather
59 Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + ~ing
60 Be/get used to something (I'm used to ...
61 Verb + preposition + ~ing (succeed in ~ing/accuse somebody of ~ing etc.)
62 Expressions + ~ing
63 To ... for ... and so that ... (purpose)
64 Adjective + to ...
65 To ... (afraid to do) and preposition + ~ing (afraid of ~ing)
66 See somebody do and see somebody doing
67 ~ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed early.)
Articles and nouns
68 Countable and uncountable nouns (1)
69 Countable and uncountable nouns (2)
70 Countable nouns with a/an and some
71 A/an and the
72 The (1)
73 The (2) (School/the school)
74 The (3) (Children/the children)
75 The (4) (The giraffe/the telephone/the piano etc.; the + adjective)
76 Names with and without the (1)
77 Names with and without the (2)
78 Singular and plural
79 Noun + noun (a tennis ball/a headache etc.)
80 -'s (the girl's name) and of ... (the name of the book)
Pronouns and determiners
81 A friend of mine My own house On my own/by myself
82 Myself/yourself/themselves etc.
83 There ... and it ...
84 Some and any
86 Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty
87 All/all of most/most of no/none of etc.
88 Both/both of neither/neither of either/either of
89 All, every and whole
90 Each and every
91 Relative clauses (1)-clauses with who/that/which
92 Relative clauses (2)-clauses with or without who/that/which
93 Relative clauses (3)-whose/whom/where
94 Relative clauses (4)-'extra information' clauses (1)
95 Relative clauses (5)-'extra information' clauses (2)
96 ~ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident)
Adjectives and adverbs
97 Adjectives ending in ~ing and -ed (boring/bored etc.)
98 Adjectives: word order (a nice new house) Adjectives after verbs (You look tired)
99 Adjectives and adverbs (1) (quick/quickly)
100 Adjectives and adverbs (2) (well/fast/late, hard/hardly)
101 So and such
102 A. Enough and too
103 Quite and rather
104 Comparison (1)-cheaper, more expensive etc.
105 Comparison (2)
106 Comparison (3)-as ... as than
107 Superlatives-the longest/the most enjoyable etc.
108 Word order (1)-verb + object; place and time
109 Word order (2)-adverbs with the verb
110 Still, yet and already Any more/any longer no longer
Conjunctions and prepositions
112 Although/though/even though In spite of despite
113 In case
114 Unless As long as and provided/providing
115 As (reason and time)
116 Like and as
117 As if
118 For, during and while
119 By and until By the time ...
120 At/on/in (time)
121 On time/in time At the end in the end
122 Wat/on (place) (1)
123 In/at/on (place) (2)
124 In/at/on (place) (3)
126 On/in/at (other uses)
128 Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.)
129 Adjective + preposition (1)
130 Adjective + preposition (2)
131 Verb + preposition (1) at and to
132 Verb + preposition (2) about/for/of/after
133 Verb + preposition (3) about and of
134 Verb + preposition (4) of/for/from/on
135 Verb + preposition (5) in/into/with/to/on
136 Phrasal verbs (get up/break down/fill in etc.)
Appendix 1 Regular and irregular verbs 274
Appendix 2 Present and past tenses 276
Appendix 3 The future 277
Appendix 4 Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) 278
Appendix 5 Short forms (I'm/you've/didn't etc.) 279
Appendix 6 Spelling 280
Appendix 7 American English 282
Additional exercises 284
Study guide 301
Key to Exercises 310
Key to Additional exercises 340
Key to Study guide 343
I would like to thank all the students and teachers who used the material that made up the original edition of this book. In particular, I am grateful to my former colleagues at the Swan School of English, Oxford, for all their interest and encouragement. I would also like to thank Adrian du Plessis, Alison Baxter, Barbara Thomas and Michael Swan for their help with the original edition.
Regarding this new edition, I would like to express my thanks to:
Jeanne McCarten for her help and advice throughout the preparation of the project
Alison Silver, Geraldine Mark, Peter Donovan, Ruth Carim and Nick Newton of Cambridge University Press
Gerry Abbot, Richard Fay, Clare West and Pam Murphy for their comments on the manuscript
Sue Andre and Paul Heacock for their help with the appendix on American English
Amanda MacPhall for the illustrations
TO THE STUDENT
This book is for students who want help with English grammar. It is written for you to use without a teacher.
The book will be useful for you if you are not sure of the answers to questions like these:
What is the difference between I did and I have done?
When do we use will for the future?
What is the structure after I wish?
When do we say used to do and when do we say used to doing?
When do we use the?
What is the difference between like and as?
These and many other points of English grammar are explained in the book and there are exercises on each point. Level The book is intended mainly for intermediate students (students who have already studied the basic grammar of English). It concentrates on those structures which intermediate students want to use but which often cause difficulty. Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also find the book useful.
The book is not suitable for elementary learners.
How the book is organized
There are 136 units in the book. Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems (for example, the present perfect or the use of tbe) are covered in more than one unit. For a list of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book.
Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations and examples; on the right there are exercises. At the back of the book there is a Key for you to check your answers to the exercises (page 310).
There are also seven Appendices at the back of the book (pages 274-283). These include irregular verbs, summaries of verb forms, spelling and American English.
Finally, there is a detailed Index at the back of the book (page 344).
How to use the book
The units are not in order of difficulty, so it is not intended that you work through the book from beginning to end. Every learner has different problems and you should use this book to help you with the grammar that you find difficult. It is suggested that you work in this way:
Use the Contents and/or Index to find which unit deals with the point you are interested in.
If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study guide on page 301.
Study the explanations and examples on the left-hand page of the unit you have chosen.
Do the exercises on the right-hand page.
Check your answers with the Key.
If your answers are not correct, study the left-hand page again to see what went wrong.
You can of course use the book simply as a reference book without doing the exercises.
At the back of the book there are Additional exercises (pages 284-300). These exercises bring together some of the grammar points from a number of different units. For example, Exercise 14 brings together grammar points from Units 26-40. You can use these exercises for extra practice after you have studied and practised the grammar in the units concerned.
TO THE TEACHER
English Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book but teachers may also find it useful as additional course material in cases where further work on grammar is necessary.
The book will probably be most useful at middle- and upper-intermediate levels (where all or nearly all of the material will be relevant), and can serve both as a basis for revision and as a means for practicing new structures. It will also be useful for some more advanced students who have problems with grammar and need a book for reference and practice. The book is not intended to be used by elementary learners.
The units are organized in grammatical categories (Present and past, Articles and nouns, Prepositions etc.). They are not ordered according to level of difficulty, so the book should not be worked through from beginning to end. It should be used selectively and flexibly in accordance with the grammar syllabus being used and the difficulties students are having.
The book can be used for immediate consolidation or for later revision or remedial work. It might be used by the whole class or by individual students needing extra help. The lefthand pages (explanations and examples) are written for the student to use individually but they may of course be used by the teacher as a source of ideas and information on which to base a lesson. The student then has the left-hand page as a record of what has been taught and can refer to it in the future. The exercises can be done individually, in class or as homework. Alternatively (and additionally), individual students can be directed to study certain units of the book by themselves if they have particular difficulties not shared by other students in their class.
This new edition of English Grammar in Use contains a set of Additional exercises (pages284-300). These exercises provide 'mixed' practice bringing together grammar points from a number of different units.
A 'classroom edition' of English Grammar in Use is also available. It contains no key and some teachers might therefore prefer it for use with their students.
English Grammar in Use Second Edition
While this Is a completely new edition of English Grammar in Use, the general structure and character of the original book remain the same. The main changes from the original are:
There are new units on compound nouns (Unit 79), there and it (Unit 83), each and every (Unit 90) and by (Unit 127).
Some units have been redesigned, for example Unit 73 (school or the school) and Unit 94 (relative clauses 4).
Some of the material has been reorganised. For example, Units 3-4 (present continuous and present simple) and Units 68-69 (countable and uncountable nouns) correspond to single units in the original edition. The material in Units 131-135 (verb + preposition) has been completely rearranged.
Some of the units have been reordered and nearly all units have a different number from the original edition. A few units have been moved to different parts of the book. For example, Unit 35 (had better and it's time ...) Is the new rewritten version of the original Unit 65.
On the left-hand pages, many of the explanations have been rewritten and many of the examples have been changed.
Many of the original exercises have been either modified or completely replaced with new exercises.
There is a new section of Additional exercises at the back of the book (see To the student).
In the edition with answers there is a new Study guide to help students decide which units to study (see To the student). The Study guide is only In the edition with answers.
There are two new appendices on future forms and modal verbs. The other appendices have been revised.
UNIT 1. Present continuous (I am doing)
A. Study this example situation: