Sort History Essay, Research Paper
Three main groups in the philosophy of science
1st questions about science generally
2nd questions about group and the relation
3rd questions about main terms of science
I group questions about science
1st group Epistemological questions
1st Is scientific method the only rational way of research?
2nd Is scientific method rational at all?
3rd Is any better method?
4th What could be basis of theory if direct sensual experience couldn’t be
5th How much can we presuppose the certainity of any causal conclusion or
How much can we presuppose the future on such basis like past?
6th Can we find a measure of probability in relation to any hypothesis, how
much can prove, verify any hypothesis?
7th Is scientific experience hide presupposition or pre-theories?
2nd group Metaphysical questions
1st Does scientific theory represents the real work?
2ndCan scientific statements be objective?
3rd What is the meaning of explanation?
4th Does imaging existence exist?
3rd group Ethical questions
1st How big can the responsibility of the scientist to be in relation to
dangerous research/dangerous application?
2nd Are there any dangerous questions, which should be a widening?
II big group of science Discipline in science
1st Can united science exist, can we create GRAND UNITED THEORY
2nd Are methods of social and natural science same?
3rd Is scientific method only one?
4th Can we reduce/simplify sciences back to a basic science
5th What is the ‘reducing’, and ‘explanation’ and ‘verification’
III Discipline alone questions
Most important terms: ex: time, space, causality, sport, violence…
History of Philosophy
-1stscience without philosophy of science (ancient times math, geography, architecture…) -New field of understanding, new field of think establish truth, you follow truth you follow tradition
-Next finder of measure of truth is Holy sculpture (holy book)
-Around 3000 BC the early empires did many important different building (pyramids), this world presuppose sourness.
-That’s why we should know who is right (which master, empire)
-They where trying to do something traditional and they find a very logical version, a widening of controversy
-A new field of measure was born a widening of controversy, because in the other version everybody try to follow tradition
-The masters didn’t have problem for some years but from the 6th century many new discovery show the problematic size in science (ex. Physics, biology), and all masters collect all knowledge make it in books and they found two methodological problem:
A) How we can accept change and how we can accept exact situation without change
B) What is the relation between quality and quantity and how we can mere quality?
-In the 4th century BC the must of science knowledge
-They needed systematise system, that’s why Aristotle start to systematise the field of knowledge for different sciences and start to exam the real common scientific method. (Logic).
-In his book ‘Oracle’ establish the formal logic about the right way of conclusion, with the 3 Axioms (I. A=A, II. AΉA, III. B=A or A)
-He establish the axiomatic didactic science like math, geography, therefore first they postulate principles axioms and all conclusions where written down from them with logic, and on this way they create new ideas and from them they explain the sensual environment, therefore all ideas are like a ‘box’ and we take some sensual experience in to this box. (We get sensual experience on the basis of ideas and on the basis of axioms)
-This it was famous in Christianity because all sensual experience organized by central law, idea and believes.
-Ancient Christianity was very conservative and spiritual, in early classic century from 4th-13th A.C. they try to turn our attention (the inner world from the outter), that’s why they didn’t force the sensual examination of the environment. But this approach took them in a very dangerous situation in relation Arabian expantio (various industry) win over them on the wars because of better arming, force.
-At least the Papa himself try to give choise (permision) for examination of the nature. Also he gave a command to some prists to explain why we can exam the outer world.
-Who solve that was ’Sant Tomas Aquinus’ which he turn back to Aristotle and discover him and his system of science. So in the late scolastical universaries from 13th century A.C. the students learn more about science. ex. SEPTEM ARTES LIBERALES, 7 free arts (maths, geometry, grammar, music, astrology, retoric, logic)
-From the ’TRECENTO’ 13th century A.C. a new social group born in the traid in Italy and some western countries.
-Traid houses of textiliance, and they said that the new civil are not satisfied with the scholastic kind of understanding (the axiomatic kind of understanding), because the christian church cannot explain anything on the basis of bible. (ex wars between christians, rich-poor)
-So they said the axiomatic way of explanation good for anything therefore good for nothing.
-And on your way we cannot accept the real experience but we are traders and we should accept trade in the life, therefore they look for a new kind of understanding.
-There’s philosophy was English which most times was empirical. The new thinker was
‘Francis Bacon’ which he establishes a new kind of science investigation. In his book the new name of thinking called ‘empirical inductive way’ in the 16th-17th century and his book ‘NOVOUM ORGANOUS’ (new Organo) established in the year 1620.
-This method say’s that firstly we have to collect sensual experience and after divide and compare them and after find the conclusions.
-Therefore axiomatic didactic way goes from general to special but the empirical inductive way from special to general.
-In the 18th century it came a new problem from the English ‘David Hue’. He said we cannot accept some important principles if they cannot be proved with sensual experience.
-Also in 18th century we have a very big discussion about which is the best method, empiricism or rationalism. Which empiricist said that the starting point and basis of science is sensual experience, where rationalists said that the starting point and basis is consequent logic and the idea behind it. So finally this discussion was solved at the end of 18th century by the German philosopher ‘Emanuel Kant’, which he said that empirical experience without earlier viewpoint cannot be meaningful but rational viewpoint without sensual experience cannot be reasonable, therefor they presuppose each other.
-In the first part of the 19th century the German philosopher ‘Gweder’ said that we have to investigate most important ideas and reconstruct our logic. (If we have to choose central phenomenon of life we have to change and the logic of change will explain everything, that’s why it will be united science, and we can build a great united theory about the world on the basis of logic of change).
-His project was first very successful in Europe but at the end his theory turn in to specialisation because he try to explain everything without experience.
-In the middle of 19th century they turn their attention to ‘Positivism’ (sensual experience start to deal with positive data, which data can be controlled by sensual experience).
-After him the French philosopher ‘Agoust Compte’ established sociology, and he said that science must be critical and scientist must serve the common good. He also said the 3 levels of thinking: regional, philosophical and scientifical.
-Regional: we believe in an unexistant existence (ex. God), Philosophical: we believe in independent existence of ideas (ex. Platonism), Scientifical: the order of science (1st is math the most abstract, basic and simple, 2nd astronomy, 3rd physics, 4th chemistry, 5th biology, 6th sociology and each one needs the previous one).
-‘Karl Max’ said that the science change the society, and cannot be neural and the scientist must know how to change the society.
-In the first half of the 20th century other philosophers try to find the political question in the science and they try to find exact method and basis of science out of political questions in two different ways: phenomenism, logical positivism.
-Phenomemalism: is one kind of empiricism, this approach tries to reduce all philosophical tasks to description of any phenomenon.
-We have 2 kinds of phenomenalism: 1st Agnosticism: agnostic philosophers (Kant, Huxley, Spencer) said we cannot know everything that exist. 2nd Sensualism: sensualist philosophers (Hume, Hill, Russell) said there is existence only what is experienced from as.
-They try to define the thing (object of knowing): Hill said that think is a continuous possibility of the sense, and Russell said that think is only a classification of the given phenomena.
-The main principles of phenomenalism: i. The most important basis of our understanding is phenomena, ii. all human knowledge should be reduced back to sensual experience, iii. all human knowledge came from sense or some conclusion came from sense, iv. we can’t make conclusions about unexperienced thinks from experience, v. right scientifical conclusion never talk about reality but talk about hypothetical sensual data.
-John Stuart name those data Possible sense, Russell name them sensibility.
-Phenomenalism try to describe natural and social science and find a method for all the kind of phenomena.
-1st famous philosopher ‘Dielthey’ (German) he establish the phenomenalism which he tried to understand the structure of understanding and discover historical cultural paradigmas for it. He also said human understanding must follow holistical viewpoint. The most important factor is to fill everything around as, to fill ‘quite’.
-Scientifical and individual understanding are determined by historical cultural environment.
-‘Eduan Husserl’ he try to establish science, and he suppose that phenomenology will be the logic for Scientifical investigation.
-1st the difference between action (Noesis) and content (Noema). The first follow the second, therefor process of our truth determined by contents of our thinking. For the investigation Noema has no truth but to the phenomena, everybody say that we have two different level: i. Empirical (sensual reality), ii. Eidetical (essential relation ‘Eidos’).
-Noesis wasn’t observation but was trying to see the essence of phenomena without to care about the experience.
-The aim of phenomenology is to find the clear and formal essential relationships (to find Eidoses). Philosophy has to be phenomenology. It has to be the science of essences-Eidetical science- and opposite from the standard sciences which are empirical and factual.
-Logical and Neopositivism. Established in Vienna at 20th century. Were tried to defined the exact methods of science. They said that all kinds of sciences must use language. Most famous members was: “Moris Schlict”, “Rudolf Garhap”, “Oto Neurheh” and “Rechendach”. They said that sciences could be started from an individual, sensual experience. Individual sensual experience expressed in the observational thesis. And this Thesis could be proved and identified from each other, because the differ from sensual observational data. They said that all Scientifical thesis should be reducible to all observational thesis and sensual experience. They named this process ‘verificational conclusions’, to find the observational thesis behind the conclusions.
-Hermeneoticals: this term came from the Greek word Hermes. They where very wrong traditions based on old philosophical questions in a way of understanding and explaining that questions. The history for this problem came from the religions. The problem was to understand the messages that Hermes transfer to the gods. Hermes played the role of messenger.
-1st method was the tradition to which all the members tried to say what the were following in the tradition in a way of discussions.
-The Roman empire was the next period, in which the civil discussions were reduced to law problems.
-But a new kind of Hermeneoticals born in the 16th century as a Scientifical type. Here we have the first scientists who believed in natural sciences.
-They were 3 logical types for translation. i. Theological (try to explain the relation with god), ii. Holistical (try to explain the relation of being quite), iii. Formal logic (to avoid the controversies.
-Next generation born in 19th century. ’Dielthey’ said: you cannot understand anything without knowing the history. You have to translate, explain the phenomena as historical phenomena.
-Later on a Sociological way of sciences came to moderate the history. Here we have the economical and political viewpoints. (Also psychological).
-In the first half of 19th century we have to understand the process of understanding. First to understand the process of author, after the process of the public and third was the self-understanding.
-Dielthey mentioned the relation between the emotion and psychological understanding. This was one of the criteria to understand ourselves.
-In the first halves of 20th century ‘Martin Heidegger’ establish a new generation of translation and Hemeneotics. The central problem of understanding was to understand the term of being.
-‘Gaddamer’ said that the understanding process is not individual but collective and social, and can happen through communication, conversation and dialogs.
-‘Habermas’ said that the understanding in the communication can be different depending on the type of communication. Most important differences of communication are: i. Free clear communication, ii. Pressed communication (under the force).
-The structionalism (e.g. Levi-Strauss) said there not just two ways of understanding but many, and that because the language viewpoints and the behaving of each communication.
-‘Ladwing Wittgenstein’ establishes analytical philosophy in 20th-30th century, said human mistakes come from the mistakes of languages. He also said we have to create an exact language the word exist but its meaning is problematic. He was trying to find the different structures of language games. All kind of language games follow special values and meanings. But on day he understood that there is no structure in the language games.
-Facts and Values: English philosopher ‘George Edward Moor’ said we cannot make values conclusion from existential or factual prothesis. We cannot find basis of values and the sensual environment, like natural law.
-All kinds of norms come from a general norm, from an absolute background. This discussion of sciences tried to stop the religious basis, the absolute and general norms. That was very important for both sciences of the social natural, but in social situation was very dangerous because natural is never critical. All kinds of social sciences have to be critical and also that kinds of critic presuppose measures of critical and basic norms.
-Anarchistic type of science: This model was expressed with the birth of post model philosophy. A new generation started in the age of 60’s with building a new culture ‘counter culture’. A lot of babies were born after the 2nd world war and that’s way that was called ‘baby boom’. This arrived with economy. USA was the only sovereign country, trying to improve the economy by selling thinks to other countries. This economy was parallel with the monetarian policy. ‘Keynes’ said that it will be better for the country to give money to the workers because if they also have money they could buy also from the market some products, so the economy would increase. This model was called ‘Keynesianism’.
-This policy was very good, everybody start to buy a lot of thinks so we have the born of the product agents and the world start to develop.
-But that was not enough, the people should become more educated and then we had the establishment of bigger universities.
-Then we have the war in Vietnam, in which the only dream for the young Americans was to be free. The parents try to stop them but they couldn’t. And the young start to express their feelings with arts (as rock, poetry etc. music Jim Morrison).
-Rebelalism was a central idea used in other countries but also destroy them. Generalisation of anarchistic approach and post-modern repeated in history. The new generation of scientist asked for their freedom because they were controlled by the army and the government.
-The chaotic picture of science established. ‘Imre Lakatos’ said that there isn’t standard system and method for science. He asked what is Scientifical rationality and he mentioned in 70’s Scientifical rationality was a temporary agreement bet. Scientist about terms and projects.
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