scientific method the only rational way of research?
scientific method rational at all?
3rd Is any
4th What could
be basis of theory if direct sensual experience couldn’t be
5th How much can
we presuppose the certainity of any causal conclusion or
How much can we
presuppose the future on such basis like past?
6th Can we find
a measure of probability in relation to any hypothesis, how
much can prove,
verify any hypothesis?
scientific experience hide presupposition or pre-theories?
scientific theory represents the real work?
scientific statements be objective?
3rd What is the
meaning of explanation?
4th Does imaging
1st How big can
the responsibility of the scientist to be in relation to
2nd Are there
any dangerous questions, which should be a widening?
II big group of
science Discipline in science
1st Can united
science exist, can we create GRAND UNITED THEORY
2nd Are methods
of social and natural science same?
scientific method only one?
4th Can we
reduce/simplify sciences back to a basic science
5th What is the
‘reducing’, and ‘explanation’ and ‘verification’
terms: ex: time, space, causality, sport, violence…
without philosophy of science (ancient times math, geography,
architecture…) -New field of understanding, new field of think
establish truth, you follow truth you follow tradition
-Next finder of
measure of truth is Holy sculpture (holy book)
-Around 3000 BC
the early empires did many important different building (pyramids),
this world presuppose sourness.
-That’s why we
should know who is right (which master, empire)
trying to do something traditional and they find a very logical
version, a widening of controversy
-A new field of
measure was born a widening of controversy, because in the other
version everybody try to follow tradition
didn’t have problem for some years but from the 6th century many
new discovery show the problematic size in science (ex. Physics,
biology), and all masters collect all knowledge make it in books and
they found two methodological problem:
A) How we can
accept change and how we can accept exact situation without change
B) What is the
relation between quality and quantity and how we can mere quality?
-In the 4th
century BC the must of science knowledge
systematise system, that’s why Aristotle start to systematise the
field of knowledge for different sciences and start to exam the real
common scientific method. (Logic).
-In his book
‘Oracle’ establish the formal logic about the right way of
conclusion, with the 3 Axioms (I. A=A, II. AΉA, III. B=A or A)
the axiomatic didactic science like math, geography, therefore first
they postulate principles axioms and all conclusions where written
down from them with logic, and on this way they create new ideas and
from them they explain the sensual environment, therefore all ideas
are like a ‘box’ and we take some sensual experience in to this
box. (We get sensual experience on the basis of ideas and on the
basis of axioms)
-This it was
famous in Christianity because all sensual experience organized by
central law, idea and believes.
Christianity was very conservative and spiritual, in early classic
century from 4th-13th A.C. they try to turn our attention (the inner
world from the outter), that’s why they didn’t force the sensual
examination of the environment. But this approach took them in a very
dangerous situation in relation Arabian expantio (various industry)
win over them on the wars because of better arming, force.
-At least the
Papa himself try to give choise (permision) for examination of the
nature. Also he gave a command to some prists to explain why we can
exam the outer world.
-Who solve that
was ’Sant Tomas Aquinus’ which he turn back to Aristotle and
discover him and his system of science. So in the late scolastical
universaries from 13th century A.C. the students learn more about
science. ex. SEPTEM ARTES LIBERALES, 7 free arts (maths, geometry,
grammar, music, astrology, retoric, logic)
’TRECENTO’ 13th century A.C. a new social group born in the traid
in Italy and some western countries.
-Traid houses of
textiliance, and they said that the new civil are not satisfied with
the scholastic kind of understanding (the axiomatic kind of
understanding), because the christian church cannot explain anything
on the basis of bible. (ex wars between christians, rich-poor)
-So they said
the axiomatic way of explanation good for anything therefore good for
-And on your way
we cannot accept the real experience but we are traders and we should
accept trade in the life, therefore they look for a new kind of
philosophy was English which most times was empirical. The new
Bacon’ which he establishes a new kind of science investigation. In
his book the new name of thinking called ‘empirical inductive way’
in the 16th-17th century and his book ‘NOVOUM ORGANOUS’ (new
Organo) established in the year 1620.
say’s that firstly we have to collect sensual experience and after
divide and compare them and after find the conclusions.
axiomatic didactic way goes from general to special but the empirical
inductive way from special to general.
-In the 18th
century it came a new problem from the English ‘David Hue’. He
said we cannot accept some important principles if they cannot be
proved with sensual experience.
-Also in 18th
century we have a very big discussion about which is the best method,
empiricism or rationalism. Which empiricist said that the starting
point and basis of science is sensual experience, where rationalists
said that the starting point and basis is consequent logic and the
idea behind it. So finally this discussion was solved at the end of
18th century by the German philosopher ‘Emanuel Kant’, which he
said that empirical experience without earlier viewpoint cannot be
meaningful but rational viewpoint without sensual experience cannot
be reasonable, therefor they presuppose each other.
-In the first
part of the 19th century the German philosopher ‘Gweder’ said
that we have to investigate most important ideas and reconstruct our
logic. (If we have to choose central phenomenon of life we have to
change and the logic of change will explain everything, that’s why
it will be united science, and we can build a great united theory
about the world on the basis of logic of change).
-His project was
first very successful in Europe but at the end his theory turn in to
specialisation because he try to explain everything without
-In the middle
of 19th century they turn their attention to ‘Positivism’
(sensual experience start to deal with positive data, which data can
be controlled by sensual experience).
-After him the
French philosopher ‘Agoust Compte’ established sociology, and he
said that science must be critical and scientist must serve the
common good. He also said the 3 levels of thinking: regional,
philosophical and scientifical.
believe in an unexistant existence (ex. God), Philosophical: we
believe in independent existence of ideas (ex. Platonism),
Scientifical: the order of science (1st is math the most abstract,
basic and simple, 2nd astronomy, 3rd physics, 4th chemistry, 5th
biology, 6th sociology and each one needs the previous one).
said that the science change the society, and cannot be neural and
the scientist must know how to change the society.
-In the first
half of the 20th century other philosophers try to find the political
question in the science and they try to find exact method and basis
of science out of political questions in two different ways:
phenomenism, logical positivism.
is one kind of empiricism, this approach tries to reduce all
philosophical tasks to description of any phenomenon.
-We have 2 kinds
of phenomenalism: 1st Agnosticism: agnostic philosophers (Kant,
Huxley, Spencer) said we cannot know everything that exist. 2nd
Sensualism: sensualist philosophers (Hume, Hill, Russell) said there
is existence only what is experienced from as.
-They try to
define the thing (object of knowing): Hill said that think is a
continuous possibility of the sense, and Russell said that think is
only a classification of the given phenomena.
principles of phenomenalism: i. The most important basis of our
understanding is phenomena, ii. all human knowledge should be reduced
back to sensual experience, iii. all human knowledge came from sense
or some conclusion came from sense, iv. we can’t make conclusions
about unexperienced thinks from experience, v. right scientifical
conclusion never talk about reality but talk about hypothetical
name those data Possible sense, Russell name them sensibility.
try to describe natural and social science and find a method for all
the kind of phenomena.
philosopher ‘Dielthey’ (German) he establish the phenomenalism
which he tried to understand the structure of understanding and
discover historical cultural paradigmas for it. He also said human
understanding must follow holistical viewpoint. The most important
factor is to fill everything around as, to fill ‘quite’.
and individual understanding are determined by historical cultural
Husserl’ he try to establish science, and he suppose that
phenomenology will be the logic for Scientifical investigation.
difference between action (Noesis) and content (Noema). The first
follow the second, therefor process of our truth determined by
contents of our thinking. For the investigation Noema has no truth
but to the phenomena, everybody say that we have two different level:
i. Empirical (sensual reality), ii. Eidetical (essential relation
observation but was trying to see the essence of phenomena without to
care about the experience.
-The aim of
phenomenology is to find the clear and formal essential relationships
(to find Eidoses). Philosophy has to be phenomenology. It has to be
the science of essences-Eidetical science- and opposite from the
standard sciences which are empirical and factual.
Neopositivism. Established in Vienna at 20th century. Were tried to
defined the exact methods of science. They said that all kinds of
sciences must use language. Most famous members was: “Moris
Schlict”, “Rudolf Garhap”, “Oto Neurheh” and “Rechendach”.
They said that sciences could be started from an individual, sensual
experience. Individual sensual experience expressed in the
observational thesis. And this Thesis could be proved and identified
from each other, because the differ from sensual observational data.
They said that all Scientifical thesis should be reducible to all
observational thesis and sensual experience. They named this process
‘verificational conclusions’, to find the observational thesis
behind the conclusions.
this term came from the Greek word Hermes. They where very wrong
traditions based on old philosophical questions in a way of
understanding and explaining that questions. The history for this
problem came from the religions. The problem was to understand the
messages that Hermes transfer to the gods. Hermes played the role of
-1st method was
the tradition to which all the members tried to say what the were
following in the tradition in a way of discussions.
empire was the next period, in which the civil discussions were
reduced to law problems.
-But a new kind
of Hermeneoticals born in the 16th century as a Scientifical type.
Here we have the first scientists who believed in natural sciences.
-They were 3
logical types for translation. i. Theological (try to explain the
relation with god), ii. Holistical (try to explain the relation of
being quite), iii. Formal logic (to avoid the controversies.
born in 19th century. ’Dielthey’ said: you cannot understand
anything without knowing the history. You have to translate, explain
the phenomena as historical phenomena.
-Later on a
Sociological way of sciences came to moderate the history. Here we
have the economical and political viewpoints. (Also psychological).
-In the first
half of 19th century we have to understand the process of
understanding. First to understand the process of author, after the
process of the public and third was the self-understanding.
mentioned the relation between the emotion and psychological
understanding. This was one of the criteria to understand ourselves.
-In the first
halves of 20th century ‘Martin Heidegger’ establish a new
generation of translation and Hemeneotics. The central problem of
understanding was to understand the term of being.
said that the understanding process is not individual but collective
and social, and can happen through communication, conversation and
said that the understanding in the communication can be different
depending on the type of communication. Most important differences of
communication are: i. Free clear communication, ii. Pressed
communication (under the force).
structionalism (e.g. Levi-Strauss) said there not just two ways of
understanding but many, and that because the language viewpoints and
the behaving of each communication.
Wittgenstein’ establishes analytical philosophy in 20th-30th
century, said human mistakes come from the mistakes of languages. He
also said we have to create an exact language the word exist but its
meaning is problematic. He was trying to find the different
structures of language games. All kind of language games follow
special values and meanings. But on day he understood that there is
no structure in the language games.
Values: English philosopher ‘George Edward Moor’ said we cannot
make values conclusion from existential or factual prothesis. We
cannot find basis of values and the sensual environment, like natural
-All kinds of
norms come from a general norm, from an absolute background. This
discussion of sciences tried to stop the religious basis, the
absolute and general norms. That was very important for both sciences
of the social natural, but in social situation was very dangerous
because natural is never critical. All kinds of social sciences have
to be critical and also that kinds of critic presuppose measures of
critical and basic norms.
type of science: This model was expressed with the birth of post
model philosophy. A new generation started in the age of 60’s with
building a new culture ‘counter culture’. A lot of babies were
born after the 2nd world war and that’s way that was called ‘baby
boom’. This arrived with economy. USA was the only sovereign
country, trying to improve the economy by selling thinks to other
countries. This economy was parallel with the monetarian policy.
‘Keynes’ said that it will be better for the country to give
money to the workers because if they also have money they could buy
also from the market some products, so the economy would increase.
This model was called ‘Keynesianism’.
-This policy was
very good, everybody start to buy a lot of thinks so we have the born
of the product agents and the world start to develop.
-But that was
not enough, the people should become more educated and then we had
the establishment of bigger universities.
-Then we have
the war in Vietnam, in which the only dream for the young Americans
was to be free. The parents try to stop them but they couldn’t. And
the young start to express their feelings with arts (as rock, poetry
etc. music Jim Morrison).
a central idea used in other countries but also destroy them.
Generalisation of anarchistic approach and post-modern repeated in
history. The new generation of scientist asked for their freedom
because they were controlled by the army and the government.
picture of science established. ‘Imre Lakatos’ said that there
isn’t standard system and method for science. He asked what is
Scientifical rationality and he mentioned in 70’s Scientifical
rationality was a temporary agreement bet. Scientist about terms and
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