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Содержание ( maintenance)
Введение ( introduction)
U.K. Political system
1.2 The British Parliament
2. The flag and the national emblems of Great Britain
3. Tows, industry and agriculture
4. British institutes
5. Education in Britain
6. Traditions and holidays of Great Britain
7. Sports in Great Britain
8. British Literature
9. Places of Interest in Great Britain
10. The British police
11. Transport in Britain
Заключение ( final )
Список литературы ( list literatures )
Object mine work – study experience life and traditions of Great Britain.
I leave today for small journey.
And why do we learn the English language?
I learn English because I understand that I can use it. For example, if I go to England I’ll be able to speak English there. If I go to the USA and the Great Britain, I’ll speak English too. English is used not only in England but also in other parts of the world.
I learn English because I want to read foreign literature in the original.
I like to travel but it is difficult to visit countries, when you don’t know the language spoken there.
For example, if we have a journey in Great Britain.
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE.
The UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland occupies the territory of the British Isles. It consists of 4 main countries which are England, Scotland, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff and Belfast.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of the state which is sometimes referred to as Great Britain or Britain (after it major island), England ( after its major historic part or the British Isles.
The UK is an Island state it is composed of some 5.500 islands, large and small. The two main islands are: Great Britain to the east and Ireland to the west. They are separated by the Irish Sea.
The area of the UK is 244,100 square kms. It is situated off to the northwest coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and the North Sea on the east and is separated from the European continent by the English Channel (or La Manche) and the Straits of Dover (or Pas de Calais).
The population of the UK is over 57 mln. people. The UK is inhabited by the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish who constitute the British nation. English is not the only language. Scottish, Welsh and Irish are also used.
The flag of the UK is known as the Union Jack. It has its history. It all began in 1603 when Scotland was joined to England and Wales. The flag is made up of 3 crosses. The upright cross is the Cross of St. George the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the cross of St .Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the cross is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. All of them are on the blue background.
The national anthem is “God Save the Queen”. The national currency is pound.
Geographically the island of Great Britain is subdivided into 2 main regions: Lowland Britain and Highland Britain. Lowland Britain comprises southern and eastern England. Highland Britain consists of Scotland, most of Wales, the Pennines (or the Pennine Chain) and the Lake District.
The highest mountain top is Ben Nevis in Scotland. The chief rivers of Great Britain are: the Severn, separating England and Wales, the Thames (the longest and the deepest one). The swiftest flowing river is the Spray. Also the Tweed is famous (the woolen fabric is made here).
There are many lakes in Great Britain. The Lake District is the most beautiful.
The largest are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Bristol, Leeds, Cardiff.
The capitals are: London in England, Edinburgh in Scotland, Cardiff in Wales and Belfast in Northern Ireland.
Every country has its own national emblem. The red rose is the national emblem of England the thistle is the national emblem of Scotland the daffodils and the leek are the emblems of Wales and the shamrock (a kind of clover) is the emblem of Ireland.
U.K. political system
The U.K of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. The organs of government are : Parliament, the executive and the judiciary. The legislature, Parliament, is the supreme authority. It comprises 2 chambers - the House of Lords and House of Commons - together with the Queen in her constitutional role.
The executive consists of the central Government - that is the Prime-Minister and Cabinet and other ministers who are responsible for iniating and directing the national policy, government departments, local authorities, and public corporations. The judiciary determines common I am and interpret status and is independent of both the legislature and executive.
The Government derive its authority from the elected House of Commons. A general election. For all seats in the House of Commons, must be help every 5 years. The Government is normally formed by the political party which is supported by the majority in the House of Commons. The Party’s leader is appointed Prime-Minister by the Queen. He chooses a team of ministers of whom 20 or so are in the Cabinet. The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and Shadow Cabinet. The House of Commons comprises members from the constituencies in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland who represent people whose history and traditions differ.
The House of Lords is a hereditory Chamber.
The British Parliament
There are four countries in the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Laws in Great Britain are made by Parliament. It consists of two Chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
The House of Commons is more important as it governs the country. The members of the House of Commons are elected by secret ballot. They belong to different political parties. The main parties are the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. The chief executive is the Prime minister. He heads the Government but is not the Head of State.
Great Britain is a monarchy and the Head of State is a monarch whose power is limited by Parliament. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the Party that has a majority in the House of Commons. Each new Prime Minister can make change in his cabinet, appoint new ministers and make other changes.
The Prime Minister takes policy decisions with the agreement of his ministers. He often holds Cabinet Meetings at his official residence at No10 Downing Street which is very near the Hoses of Parliament in Westminster.
The power of the Cabinet is controlled by Parliament.
There are two chambers in the British Parliament and they are called Houses – the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
In the House of Lords one can see the throne on which the Queen sits when she opens Parliament. One can also see the woolsack on which the Lord Chancellor sits. The fact is that for hundred of years wool had been known as one of the most important exports of Great Britain.
The House of Commons does not look as splendid as the House of Lords with its beautiful red benches.
Each Chamber has galleries. Seats in the galleries are reserved for the use of the public. In the language of the Parliament they are called “strangers”.
The Stranger’s gallery is in the House of Commons.
The Speaker sits on the green chair given to the Commons of Australia. On the Speaker’s chair there is a switch that puts on the light in the Clock Tower above “Big Ben” to tell Londoners that Parliament is in session.
The Prime Minister’s seat is on the Government front bench which is on the Speaker’s right. On the Speaker’s left one can see the Opposition front bench.
2. The flag and the national emblems of Great Britain
The flag of the United Kingdom is often called the Union Flag, or the Union Jack.
It consists of several flags.
In 1603 Scotland was joined to England and Wales.
The Scottish Flag, St.Andrew’s Cross (the patron saint of Scotland0, blue with a white cross from corner to corner, was joined to the English flag, St.George’s Cross (the patron saint of England), white with a red upright cross.
Later, in 1801, the Irish Flag of St.Patrick’s Cross (the patron of Ireland) was added, white with a red cross from corner to corner.
As for the national emblems of Great Britain they are very unusual and surprising.
Everybody knows about the War of the Roses (1455-1485), which was led between the two contending Houses for the English throne.
The emblem of one of them, the Lancastrians, was the red rose, and the emblem of the Yorkists was the white rose.
Since the end of this war the red rose has been the national emblem of England.
The people of Scotland chose the thistle as their national emblem.
They say that it saved their land from foreign invaders many years ago.
This happened so.
During a surprise night attack by the invaders the Scottish soldiers were awakened by the shouts of one of the invaders, whose bare feet stepped on the thorns of the thistle.
The alarm was given and soon the Scots won victory over the enemy, and the thistle became their national emblem.
The little shamrock is the national emblem of the Irish.
It is worn in memory of St. Patrick, Irelands patron saint.
A legend says that St. Patrick used a small green shamrock when he was preaching the doctrine of the Trinity to the pagan Irish.
There is a legend according to which St. David (the patron saint of Wales) lived for several years on bread and wild leeks.
So Welshmen all over the world celebrate St. David’s Day by putting leers onto their clothes.
They consider the leek their national emblem.
By the way the daffodil is also associated with St. David’s Day, it flowers on that day.
3. Tows, industry and agriculture
Great Britain is mainly an industrial country.
That’s why most of the people there live in large towns.
The largest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Leeds, Edinburgh and others.
London is the capital of England and the capital of the United Kingdom, too.
It is a very big city.
Its population is more than 11 million people.
London stands on the river Thames.
The Thames is rather a deep river, so all kinds of ships can come into London port.
That makes London one of the biggest sea ports of world.
London is also one of the main ship-building centres.
Besides, lots of things such as clothes, food, airplanes and cars are made in London.
Birmingham is the biggest town in an important industrial region in the centre of England.
Machines, cars and lorries as well as TV- and radiosets are produced there.
Manchester in the north-west of England is the centre of the cotton textile industry.
Here computers, electronic equipment, various machines, foods and other things are made. Glasgow is the biggest city of Scotland. Shipbuilding is one of its most important industries.
Other industries are iron and steel manufacture, heavy and light engineering and coal mining.
It’s an industrial city and an important port. The largest city of Wales is Cardiff, its capital. It is an important industrial city and a port.
It is also an administrative and educational centre.
Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland is the leading industrial centre and a large port.
Its chief industries are the production of linen and other textiles, clothing, shipbuilding, engineering. Great Britain is also a highly developed agricultural country. Wheat is grown in the east of England.
Vegetables are grown in all parts of the country, especially in the south.
Potatoes are grown everywhere in the British Isles.
Some kinds of fruit can grow in the south where the temperature is higher and there is more sunshine.
There are a lot of cattle farms and farms which produce milk, butter and cheese.
Great Britain is also famous for its wool.
Parliament is the most important authority in Britain. Parliament first met in the 13th century. Britain does not have a written constitution, but a set of laws. In 1689 Mary II and William III became the first constitution monarchs. They could rule only with the support of the Parliament. Technically Parliament is made up of three parts: the Monarch, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
The continuity of the English monarchy has been interrupted only once during the Cromwell republic. Succession to the throne is hereditary but only for Protestants in the direct line of descent. Formally the monarch has a number of roles. The monarch is expected to be politically neutral, and should not make political decisions. Nevertheless, the monarch still performs some important executive and legislative duties including opening and dissolving Parliament, singing bills passed by both Houses and fulfilling international duties as head of state. The present sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II who was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 1953.
The House of Lords comprises about 1,200 peers. The house is presided over by the Lord Chancellor. The House of Lords has no real power but acts as an advisory council for the House of Commons. As well as having legislative functions, the Lords is the highest court of appeal.
The House of Commons consist of members of Parliament who are elected by the adult suffrage of the British people in general elections which are held at least every five years. The country is divided into 650 constituencies each of which elects one Member of Parliament. The Commons therefore, has 650 Members of Parliament. The party which wins the most seats forms the Government and its leader becomes the Prime Minister. The functions of Commons are registration and security of government activities. The house is presided over by the Speaker. The government party sits on the Speaker’s right while on his left sit the members of the Opposition.
5. Education in Britain
In England and Wales compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called play school. School in compulsory till the children are 16 years old.
In Primary School and First School children learn to read and write and the basis of arithmetic. In the higher classes of Primary School (or in Middle School) children learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language. Than children go to Secondary School.
When students are 16 years old they may take an exam in various subjects on order to have a qualification. These qualifications can be either G.C.S.E. (General Certificate of Secondary education) or “O level” (ordinary level). After that students can either leave school and start working or continue their studies in the same school as before. If they continue, when they are 18, they have to take further examinations which are necessary for getting into university or college.
Some parents choose private schools for their children. They are very expensive but considered to provide a better education and good job opportunities.
In England there are 47 universities, including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor’s degree and the Master’s degree.
6. Traditions and holidays of Great Britain
English traditions can classified into several groups: traditions concerning the
Englishmen’s private life (child’s birth, wedding, marriage, wedding anniversary); which are connected with families incomes; state traditions; national holidays, religious holidays, public festival, traditional ceremonies.
What about royal traditions? There are numerous royal traditions in Britain, some are ancient, others are modern.
The Queen is the only person in Britain with two birthdays. Her real birthday is on April 21st, but she has an “official” birthday, too. That is on the second Saturday in June. And on the Queen’s official birthday, there is a traditional ceremony called the Trooping of the Colour. It is a big parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers at Horse Guard’s Parade in London..
Traditionally the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. But Parliament, not the Royal Family, controls modern Britain. The Queen travels from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of Parliament in a gold carriage – the Irish State Coach. At the Houses of Parliament the Queen sits on a “throne” in the House of Lords. Then she reads the “Queen’s Speech”. At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown. She wears other jewels from the Crown Jewels, too.
In Britain as in other countries costumes and uniforms have a long history.
One is the uniform of the Beefeaters at the tower of London. This came first from France. Another is the uniform of the Horse Guards at Horse Guard’s Parade, not far from Buckingham Palace. Thousands of visitors take photographs of the Horse Guards.
Britannia is a symbol of Britain. And she wears traditional clothes, too. But she is not a real person.
Lots of ordinary clothes have a long tradition. The famous bowler hat, for example. A man called Beaulieu made the first one in 1850.
One of the British soldiers, Wellington, gave his name to a pair of boots. They have a shorter name today – “Wellies”.
There are only six public holidays a year in Great Britain, that is days on which people need not go in to work. They are: Christmas Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday and Late Summer Bank Holiday, Boxing Day.
So the most popular holiday in Britain is Christmas. Christmas has been celebrated from the earliest days of recorded history, and each era and race has pasted a colourful sheet of new customs and traditions over the old.
On the Sunday before Christmas many churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung. Sometimes carol singers can be heard in the streets as they collect money for charity. There are a lot of very popular British Christmas carols. Three famous ones are: “Good King Wenceslas”, “The Holly and The Ivy” and “We Three Kings”.
Each year, hundreds of thousands of people all over the world send and receive Christmas cards. Most of people think that exchanging cards at Christmas is a very ancient custom but it is not right. In fact it is barely 100 years old. The idea of exchanging illustrated greeting and presents is, however, ancient. So the first commercial Christmas card was produced in Britain in 1843 by Henry Cole, founder of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The handcoloured print was inscribed with the words ’A Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year to you’. It was horizontally rectangular in shape, printed on stout cardboard by lithography.
A traditional feature of Christmas in Britain is the Christmas tree. Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert, brought the German tradition (he was German) to Britain. He and the Queen had a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in 1841. A few years after, nearly every house in Britain had one. Traditionally people decorate their trees on Christmas Eve – that’s December 24th. They take down the decorations twelve days later, on Twelfth Night (January 5th).
An older tradition is Christmas mistletoe. People put a piece of this green plant with its white berries over a door. Mistletoe brings good luck, people say..
Those who live away try to get back home because Christmas is a family celebration and it is the biggest holiday of the year. As Christmas comes nearer, everyone is buying presents for relatives and friends. At Christmas people try to give their children everything they want. And the children count the weeks, than the days, to Christmas. They are wondering what presents on December 24th. Father Christmas brings their presents in the night. Then they open them on the morning of the 25th.
There is another name for Father Christmas in Britain – Santa Claus. That comes from the European name for him – Saint Nicholas. In the traditional story he lives at the North Pole. But now he lives in big shops in towns and cities all over Britain. Well, that’s where children see him in November and December. Then on Christmas Eve he visits every house. He climbs down the chimney and leaves lots of presents. Some people leave something for him, too. A glass of wine and some biscuits, for example..
December 26th is Boxing Day. They went from house to house on December 26th and took boxes made of wood with them. At each house people gave them money. This was a Christmas present. So the name of December 26th doesn’t come from the sport of boxing – it comes from the boys’ wooden boxes. Now, Boxing Day is an extra holiday after Christmas Day.
But the tradition of the December 26th hunt is changing. Now, some people want to stop Boxing Day Hunts (and other hunts, too). They don’t like foxhunting. For them it’s not a sport – it is cruel.
Usually a dark-complexioned man was chosen, and never a woman, for she would bring bad luck. The first footer was required to carry three articles: a piece of coal to wish warmth, a piece of bread to wish food, and a silver coin to wish wealth. In some parts of northern England this pleasing custom is still observed. So this interesting tradition called “First Footing”.
On October 31st British people celebrate Halloween. It is undoubtedly the most colourful and exciting holiday of the year. Though it is not a public holiday, it is very dear to those who celebrate it, especially to children and teenagers. This day was originally called All Hallow’s Eve because it fell on the eve of All Saints’ Day. The name was later shortened to Halloween. According to old beliefs, Halloween is the time, when the veil between the living and the dead is partially lifted, and witches, ghosts and other super natural beings are about. Now children celebrate Halloween in unusual costumes and masks. It is a festival of merrymaking, superstitions spells, fortunetelling, traditional games and pranks. Halloween is a time for fun.
Halloween is something called Beggars’ Night or Trick or Treat night. Some people celebrate Beggars’ Night as Irish children did in the 17th century. They dress up as ghosts and witches and go into the streets to beg. And children go from house to house and say: “Trick or treat!”, meaning “Give me a treat or I’ll play a trick on you”. Some groups of “ghosts” chant Beggars’ Night rhymes:
Trick or treat,
Smell our feet.
We want something
Good to eat.
At Halloween parties the guests wear every kind of costume. Some people dress up like supernatural creatures, other prefers historical or political figures. You can also meet pirates, princesses, Draculas, Cinderellas, or even Frankenstein’s monsters at a Halloween festival.
March 1st is a very important day for Welsh people. It’s St. David’s Day. He’s the “patron” or national saint of Wales. On March 1st, the Welsh celebrate St. Davids Day and wear daffodils in the buttonholes of their coats or jackets.
On February 14th it’s Saint Valentine’s Day in Britain. It is not a national holiday. Banks and offices do not close, but it is a happy little festival in honour of St. Valentine. On this day, people send Valentine cards to their husbands, wives, girlfriends and boyfriends. You can also send a card to a person you do not know. But traditionally you must never write your name on it. Some British newspapers have got a page for Valentine’s Day messages on February 14th.
This lovely day is widely celebrated among people of all ages by the exchanging of “valentines”.
Midsummer’s Day, June 24th, is the longest day of the year. On that day you can see a very old custom at Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is on of Europe’s biggest stone circles.
And every June 24th a lot of them go to Stonehenge. On that morning the sun shines on one famous stone – the Heel stone. For the Druids this is a very important moment in the year. But for a lot of British people it is just a strange old custom.
April 1st is April Fool’s Day in Britain. This is a very old tradition from the Middle Ages (between the fifth and fifteenth centuries). At that time the servants were masters for one day of the year. They gave orders to their masters, and their masters had to obey.
There are some British traditions and customs concerning their private life. The British are considered to be the world’s greatest tea drinkers. And so tea is Britain’s favourite drink. The English know how to make tea and what it does for you. In England people say jokingly: ‘The test of good tea is simple. If a spoon stands up in it, then it is strong enough; if the spoon starts to wobble, it is a feeble makeshift’.
Every country has its drinking habits, some of which are general and obvious, others most peculiar. Most countries also have a national drink. In England the national is beer, and the pub “pub”, where people talk, eat, drink, meet their friends and relax.
The word “pub” is short for “public house”. Pubs sell beer. (British beer is always warm). An important custom in pubs is “buying a round”. In a group, one person buys all the others a drink. This is a “round”. Then one by one all the people buy rounds, too. If they are with friends, British people sometimes lift their glasses before they drink and say: “Cheers”. This means “Good luck”.
And as you know, the British talk about the weather a lot. They talk about the weather because it changes so often. Wind, rain, sun, cloud, snow – they can all happen in a British winter – or a British summer.
7. Sports in Great Britain
British people are very fond of sports. Sport is a part of their normal life. The two most popular games are football and cricket.
Football, also called soccer, is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom. England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own Football Leagues and national teams. Games are played on Saturday afternoons from August to April. In addition to the FL games there is a competition called the Football Associations Cup. The Cup Final is played at Wembley Stadium(London) in May.
Cricket is considered to be the English National game. Its rules are very complicated. Two teams of eleven men each play it, the player at a time tries to hit ball with a bat.
Golf is the Scottish national game. It originated in the XV century and the most famous golf course in the world, known as a Royal and Ancient Club, is at St. Andrew’s.
Lawn tennis was first played in Britain in the late 19th century. The most famous British championship is Wimbledon, played annually during the last week of June and the fist week of July.
Those are the most popular kinds of sport in the UK. But there are many other sports such as rugby, golf, swimming, horse-racing and the traditional fox-hunting.
8. British Literature
Great Britain gave the world a lot of talented people. Many famous writers and poets were born in Great Britain. One of the best known English playwrights was William Shakespeare. He draw ideas for his tragedies and comedies from the history of England and ancient Rome. Many experts consider Shakespeare the greatest writer and the greatest playwright in England language. William Shakespeare wrote 37 plays which may be divided into: comedies (such as A Midsummer Night’s Dream), tragedies (such as Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth) and historical plays (such as Richard II, Henry V, Julius Caesar, Anthony and Cleopatra).
Robert Burns represents the generation of Romantic writers. In his poems he described with love and understanding the simple life he knew. Among his well-known poems are Halloween, The Jolly Beggars, To a Mouse.
George Gordon Lord Byron. His free-spirited lie style combined with his poetic gift makes him one of the most famous figures of the Romantic Era. His famous works such as Stanzas to Augusta, The Prisoner of Chillon, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Manfred draw readers into the passion, humors and conviction of a poet whose life and work truly embodied the Romantic spirit.
Sir Walter Scott wrote the first examples of historical novel; Lewis Carroll became famous when he published Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
9. Places of Interest in Great Britain
Britain is rich in its historic places which link the present with the past.
The oldest part of London is Lud Hill, where the city was originated. About a mile west of it there is Westminster Palace, where the king lived and the Parliament met, and there is also Westminster Abbey, the coronation church.
Liverpool, the “city of ships”, is England’s second greatest port ranking after London. The most interesting sight in the Liverpool is the docks. They occupy a river frontage of seven miles. The University of Liverpool, established in 1903, is noted for its school of Tropical Medicine. And in the music world Liverpool is a well-known name, for it’s the town of “The Beatles”.
Stratford-on-Avon lies 93 miles north-west of London. Shakespeare was born here in1564, and here he died in 1616. Cambridge and Oxford Universities are famous centers of learning.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument, presumably build by Druids, members of an order of priests in ancient Britain. Tintagel Castle is King Arthur’s reputed birthplace. Canterbury is the seat of the Archbishop o Canterbury, head of the Church of England.
The British Museum is the largest and riches museum in the world. It was founded in 1753 and contains one of the world’s richest collections of antiquities. The Egyptian Galleries contain human and animal mummies. Some parts of Athens’ Parthenon are in the Greek section.
Madam Tussaud’s Museum is an exhibition of hundreds of life-size wax models of famous people of yesterday and today. The collection was started by Madam Tussaud, a French modeler in wax, in the 18 century. Here you can meet Marilyn Monroe, Elton John, Picasso, the Royal family, the Beatles and many others: writers, movie stars, singers, politicians, sportsmen, etc.
10. The British police
The British police officer – sometimes called the “bobby” after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force – is well-known figure to everybody, who sees British films. Policemen keep law and order either walking in the streets or driving in cars. In Britain the police are organized very differently from many other countries. Britain has no national police force, instead, there is a separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority – a committee of local county councilors and magistrates.
It is unusual for members of one force to operate in another’s area unless they are asked to give assistance. A Chief Constable (their senior officer of a force) sometimes may ask for assistance of London’s police force, based at New Scotland Yard – known simply as “the Yard”.
The British police generally do not carry guns, except in North Ireland. Only a few police are regularly armed – for instance, those guard politicians, diplomats or who patrol airports.
11. Transport in Britain
You can reach England either by plane, by train, by car or by ship. The fastest way is by plane. London has three international airports: Heathrow, the largest, connected to the city by underground; Gatwick, south of London, with a frequent train service; Luton, the smallest, used for charter flights.
If you go to England by train or by car you have to cross the Channel. There is a frequent service of steamers and ferry-boats which connect the continent to the south-east of England.
People in Britain drive on the left and generally overtake on right. The speed limit is 0 miles per hour (50km/h) in towns and cities and 70 mph (110 km/h) on motorways.
When you are in London you can choose from different means of transport: bus, train, underground or taxi. The typical bus in London is a red double-decker. The first London bus started running between Paddington and the City in 1829. It carried 40 passengers and cost a shilling for six kms.
The next to arrive were the trains; now there are twelve railway stations in London. The world’s first underground line was opened between Baker St. and the City in 1863. Now there are ten underground lines and 273 underground is also called the Tube, because of the circular shape of its deep tunnels.
All! My day in Britain has the end!
Great Britain is beautiful!
The population of Great Britain is over 57 million people.
As the United Kingdom is an island state the climate there is very specific.
It is not very cold in winter and never very hot in summer.
There is no ice on the lakes and rivers in winter.
It often rains in all seasons.
Besides, Britain is famous for its fogs.
The weather changes so often that Englishmen say that they have no climate in Great Britain, but only weather.
The nature of Great Britain is picturesque.
There are many rivers and beautiful lakes there.
One of the most wonderful parts of the country is called Lake District.
The main rivers of Great Britain are the Severn and the Thames.
There are no great forests in the British Isles.
As for the mountains they are not very high, but very beautiful.
The most picturesque region of the country is Highlands in the North of Scotland.
This is the region of mountains, rivers and cosy towns and villages.
In short, I understand that I have to learn English properly and I try to do so!
Levashova V.A. Britain today: Life and Institutions. – Moscow: INFRA-M, 2001.
200 Тем Английского Языка./Сост.: Бойко В., Жидких Н., Каверина В., Панина Е. – Москва: Издательство Иванова В.И., 2001.
Книга для чтения к учебнику английского языка для 8 класса средней школы./Сост.: Копыл Е.Г., Боровик М.А. Изд. 2-е. Москва, «Просвещение», 1999.