The flag and the national emblems of Great Britain
Tows, industry and agriculture
Education in Britain
and holidays of Great Britain
in Great Britain
Places of Interest in Great Britain
The British police
Transport in Britain
литературы ( listliteratures
mine work – study experience life and traditions of Great Britain.
today for small journey.
And why do we learn the English language?
English because I understand that I can use it. For example, if I go
to England I’ll be able to speak English there. If I go to the USA
and the Great Britain, I’ll speak English too. English is used not
only in England but also in other parts of the world.
English because I want to read foreign literature in the original.
I like to
travel but it is difficult to visit countries, when you don’t know
the language spoken there.
example, if we have a journey in Great Britain.
THE LAND AND THE
The UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland occupies
the territory of the British Isles. It consists of 4 main countries
which are England, Scotland, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Their capitals are London, Cardiff and Belfast.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland is the official name of the state which is sometimes referred
to as Great Britain or Britain (after it major island), England (
after its major historic part or the British Isles.
The UK is an Island state it is composed of some 5.500
islands, large and small. The two main islands are: Great Britain to
the east and Ireland to the west. They are separated by the Irish
The area of the UK is 244,100 square kms. It is
situated off to the northwest coast of Europe between the Atlantic
Ocean on the north and the North Sea on the east and is separated
from the European continent by the English Channel (or La Manche) and
the Straits of Dover (or Pas de Calais).
population of the UK is over 57 mln. people. The UK is inhabited by
the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish who constitute the
British nation. English is not the only language. Scottish, Welsh and
Irish are also used.
flag of the UK is known as the Union Jack. It has its history. It all
began in 1603 when Scotland was joined to England and Wales. The flag
is made up of 3 crosses. The upright cross is the Cross of St. George
the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the cross of
St .Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is
the cross is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.
All of them are on the blue background.
The national anthem is “God Save the Queen”. The
national currency is pound.
Geographically the island of Great Britain is
subdivided into 2 main regions: Lowland Britain and Highland Britain.
Lowland Britain comprises southern and eastern England. Highland
Britain consists of Scotland, most of Wales, the Pennines (or the
Pennine Chain) and the Lake District.
The highest mountain top is Ben Nevis in Scotland. The
chief rivers of Great Britain are: the Severn, separating England and
Wales, the Thames (the longest and the deepest one). The swiftest
flowing river is the Spray. Also the Tweed is famous (the woolen
fabric is made here).
There are many lakes in Great Britain. The Lake
District is the most beautiful.
The largest are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool,
Bristol, Leeds, Cardiff.
The capitals are: London in England, Edinburgh in
Scotland, Cardiff in Wales and Belfast in Northern Ireland.
Every country has its own national emblem. The red rose
is the national emblem of England the thistle is the national emblem
of Scotland the daffodils and the leek are the emblems of Wales and
the shamrock (a kind of clover) is the emblem of Ireland.
The U.K of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a
parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch, Queen
Elizabeth II as head of state. The organs of government are :
Parliament, the executive and the judiciary. The legislature,
Parliament, is the supreme authority. It comprises 2 chambers - the
House of Lords and House of Commons - together with the Queen in her
The executive consists of the central Government - that
is the Prime-Minister and Cabinet and other ministers who are
responsible for iniating and directing the national policy,
government departments, local authorities, and public corporations.
The judiciary determines common I am and interpret status and is
independent of both the legislature and executive.
The Government derive its authority from the elected
House of Commons. A general election. For all seats in the House of
Commons, must be help every 5 years. The Government is normally
formed by the political party which is supported by the majority in
the House of Commons. The Party’s leader is appointed
Prime-Minister by the Queen. He chooses a team of ministers of whom
20 or so are in the Cabinet. The second largest party becomes the
official opposition with its own leader and Shadow Cabinet. The House
of Commons comprises members from the constituencies in England,
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland who represent people whose
history and traditions differ.
The House of Lords is a hereditory Chamber.
are four countries in the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales
and Northern Ireland.
in Great Britain are made by Parliament. It consists of two Chambers:
the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
House of Commons is more important as it governs the country. The
members of the House of Commons are elected by secret ballot. They
belong to different political parties. The main parties are the
Conservative Party and the Labour Party. The chief executive is the
Prime minister. He heads the Government but is not the Head of State.
Britain is a monarchy and the Head of State is a monarch whose power
is limited by Parliament. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of
the Party that has a majority in the House of Commons. Each new Prime
Minister can make change in his cabinet, appoint new ministers and
make other changes.
Prime Minister takes policy decisions with the agreement of his
ministers. He often holds Cabinet Meetings at his official residence
at No10 Downing Street which is very near the Hoses of Parliament in
power of the Cabinet is controlled by Parliament.
are two chambers in the British Parliament and they are called Houses
– the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
the House of Lords one can see the throne on which the Queen sits
when she opens Parliament. One can also see the woolsack on which the
Lord Chancellor sits. The fact is that for hundred of years wool had
been known as one of the most important exports of Great Britain.
House of Commons does not look as splendid as the House of Lords with
its beautiful red benches.
Chamber has galleries. Seats in the galleries are reserved for the
use of the public. In the language of the Parliament they are called
Stranger’s gallery is in the House of Commons.
Speaker sits on the green chair given to the Commons of Australia. On
the Speaker’s chair there is a switch that puts on the light in the
Clock Tower above “Big Ben” to tell Londoners that Parliament is
Prime Minister’s seat is on the Government front bench which is on
the Speaker’s right. On the Speaker’s left one can see the
Opposition front bench.
The flag and the national emblems of Great Britain
flag of the United Kingdom is often called the Union Flag, or the
consists of several flags.
1603 Scotland was joined to England and Wales.
Scottish Flag, St.Andrew’s Cross (the patron saint of Scotland0,
blue with a white cross from corner to corner, was joined to the
English flag, St.George’s Cross (the patron saint of England),
white with a red upright cross.
in 1801, the Irish Flag of St.Patrick’s Cross (the patron of
Ireland) was added, white with a red cross from corner to corner.
for the national emblems of Great Britain they are very unusual and
knows about the War of the Roses (1455-1485), which was led between
the two contending Houses for the English throne.
emblem of one of them, the Lancastrians, was the red rose, and the
emblem of the Yorkists was the white rose.
the end of this war the red rose has been the national emblem of
people of Scotland chose the thistle as their national emblem.
say that it saved their land from foreign invaders many years ago.
a surprise night attack by the invaders the Scottish soldiers were
awakened by the shouts of one of the invaders, whose bare feet
stepped on the thorns of the thistle.
alarm was given and soon the Scots won victory over the enemy, and
the thistle became their national emblem.
little shamrock is the national emblem of the Irish.
is worn in memory of St. Patrick, Irelands patron saint.
legend says that St. Patrick used a small green shamrock when he was
preaching the doctrine of the Trinity to the pagan Irish.
is a legend according to which St. David (the patron saint of Wales)
lived for several years on bread and wild leeks.
Welshmen all over the world celebrate St. David’s Day by putting
leers onto their clothes.
consider the leek their national emblem.
By the way the daffodil is also associated with St.
David’s Day, it flowers on that day.
industry and agriculture
Britain is mainly an industrial country.
why most of the people there live in large towns.
largest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow,
Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Leeds, Edinburgh and others.
is the capital of England and the capital of the United Kingdom, too.
is a very big city.
population is more than 11 million people.
stands on the river Thames.
Thames is rather a deep river, so all kinds of ships can come into
makes London one of the biggest sea ports of world.
is also one of the main ship-building centres.
lots of things such as clothes, food, airplanes and cars are made in
is the biggest town in an important industrial region in the centre
cars and lorries as well as TV- and radiosets are produced there.
in the north-west of England is the centre of the cotton textile
computers, electronic equipment, various machines, foods and other
things are made. Glasgow is the biggest city of Scotland.
Shipbuilding is one of its most important industries.
industries are iron and steel manufacture, heavy and light
engineering and coal mining.
an industrial city and an important port. The largest city of Wales
is Cardiff, its capital. It is an important industrial city and a
is also an administrative and educational centre.
the capital of Northern Ireland is the leading industrial centre and
a large port.
chief industries are the production of linen and other textiles,
clothing, shipbuilding, engineering. Great Britain is also a highly
developed agricultural country. Wheat is grown in the east of
are grown in all parts of the country, especially in the south.
are grown everywhere in the British Isles.
kinds of fruit can grow in the south where the temperature is higher
and there is more sunshine.
are a lot of cattle farms and farms which produce milk, butter and
Britain is also famous for its wool.
Parliament is the most important
authority in Britain. Parliament first met in the 13th
century. Britain does not have a written constitution, but a set of
laws. In 1689 Mary II and William III became the first constitution
monarchs. They could rule only with the support of the Parliament.
Technically Parliament is made up of three parts: the Monarch, the
House of Lords and the House of Commons.
The continuity of the English monarchy has been
interrupted only once during the Cromwell republic. Succession to the
throne is hereditary but only for Protestants in the direct line of
descent. Formally the monarch has a number of roles. The monarch is
expected to be politically neutral, and should not make political
decisions. Nevertheless, the monarch still performs some important
executive and legislative duties including opening and dissolving
Parliament, singing bills passed by both Houses and fulfilling
international duties as head of state. The present sovereign is Queen
Elizabeth II who was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 1953.
The House of Lords comprises about 1,200 peers. The
house is presided over by the Lord Chancellor. The House of Lords has
no real power but acts as an advisory council for the House of
Commons. As well as having legislative functions, the Lords is the
highest court of appeal.
The House of Commons consist of members of Parliament
who are elected by the adult suffrage of the British people in
general elections which are held at least every five years. The
country is divided into 650 constituencies each of which elects one
Member of Parliament. The Commons therefore, has 650 Members of
Parliament. The party which wins the most seats forms the Government
and its leader becomes the Prime Minister. The functions of Commons
are registration and security of government activities. The house is
presided over by the Speaker. The government party sits on the
Speaker’s right while on his left sit the members of the
5. Education in Britain
In England and Wales compulsory school begins at the age
of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school,
also called play school. School in compulsory till the children are
16 years old.
In Primary School and First School children learn to
read and write and the basis of arithmetic. In the higher classes of
Primary School (or in Middle School) children learn geography,
history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language. Than
children go to Secondary School.
When students are 16 years old they may take an exam in
various subjects on order to have a qualification. These
qualifications can be either G.C.S.E. (General Certificate of
Secondary education) or “O level” (ordinary level). After that
students can either leave school and start working or continue their
studies in the same school as before. If they continue, when they are
18, they have to take further examinations which are necessary for
getting into university or college.
Some parents choose private schools for their children.
They are very expensive but considered to provide a better education
and good job opportunities.
In England there are 47 universities,
including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about
400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest
universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally,
universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor’s degree and
the Master’s degree.
and holidays of Great Britain
English traditions can classified into several groups:
traditions concerning the
Englishmen’s private life (child’s
marriage, wedding anniversary); which are connected with families
incomes; state traditions; national holidays, religious holidays,
public festival, traditional ceremonies.
What about royal traditions? There are numerous royal
traditions in Britain, some are ancient, others are modern.
The Queen is the only person in
Britain with two birthdays. Her real birthday is on April 21st,
but she has an “official” birthday, too. That is on the second
Saturday in June. And on the Queen’s official birthday, there is a
traditional ceremony called the Trooping of the Colour. It is a big
parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers at Horse Guard’s
Parade in London..
Traditionally the Queen opens
Parliament every autumn. But Parliament, not the Royal Family,
controls modern Britain. The Queen travels from Buckingham Palace to
the Houses of Parliament in a gold carriage – the Irish State
Coach. At the Houses of Parliament the Queen sits on a “throne”
in the House of Lords. Then she reads the “Queen’s
Speech”. At the
State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown. She wears other
jewels from the Crown Jewels, too.
In Britain as in other countries costumes and uniforms
have a long history.
One is the uniform of the Beefeaters at the tower of
London. This came first from France. Another is the uniform of the
Horse Guards at Horse Guard’s Parade, not far from Buckingham
Palace. Thousands of visitors take photographs of the Horse Guards.
Britannia is a symbol of Britain. And she wears
traditional clothes, too. But she is not a real person.
Lots of ordinary clothes have a long tradition. The
famous bowler hat, for example. A man called Beaulieu made the first
one in 1850.
One of the British soldiers,
Wellington, gave his name to a pair of boots. They have a shorter
name today – “Wellies”.
There are only six public holidays a
year in Great Britain, that is days on which people need not go in to
work. They are:
Christmas Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday and
Late Summer Bank Holiday, Boxing Day.
So the most popular holiday in
Britain is Christmas.
Christmas has been celebrated from the earliest days of recorded
history, and each era and race has pasted a colourful sheet of new
customs and traditions over the old.
On the Sunday before Christmas many
churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung. Sometimes
carol singers can be heard in the streets as they collect money for
charity. There are a lot of very popular British Christmas carols.
Three famous ones are: “Good
“The Holly and The
Ivy” and “We
Each year, hundreds of thousands of people all over the
world send and receive Christmas cards. Most of people think that
exchanging cards at Christmas is a very ancient custom but it is not
right. In fact it is barely 100 years old. The idea of exchanging
illustrated greeting and presents is, however, ancient. So the first
commercial Christmas card was produced in Britain in 1843 by Henry
Cole, founder of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The
handcoloured print was inscribed with the words ’A Merry Christmas
and A Happy New Year to you’. It was horizontally rectangular in
shape, printed on stout cardboard by lithography.
A traditional feature of Christmas in
Britain is the Christmas tree. Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince
Albert, brought the German tradition (he was German) to Britain. He
and the Queen had a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in 1841. A few
years after, nearly every house in Britain had one. Traditionally
people decorate their trees on Christmas Eve – that’s December
They take down the decorations twelve days later, on Twelfth Night
An older tradition is Christmas mistletoe. People put a
piece of this green plant with its white berries over a door.
Mistletoe brings good luck, people say..
Those who live away try to get back
home because Christmas is a family celebration and it is the biggest
holiday of the year. As Christmas comes nearer, everyone is buying
presents for relatives and friends. At Christmas people try to give
their children everything they want. And the children count the
weeks, than the days, to Christmas. They are wondering what presents
on December 24th.
Father Christmas brings their presents in the night. Then they open
them on the morning of the 25th.
There is another name for Father
Christmas in Britain – Santa Claus. That comes from the European
name for him – Saint Nicholas. In the traditional story he lives at
the North Pole. But now he lives in big shops in towns and cities all
over Britain. Well, that’s where children see him in November and
December. Then on Christmas Eve he visits every house. He climbs down
the chimney and leaves lots of presents. Some people leave something
for him, too. A glass of wine and some biscuits, for example..
is Boxing Day.
They went from house to house on December 26th
and took boxes made of wood with them. At each house people gave them
money. This was a Christmas present. So the name of December 26th
doesn’t come from the sport of boxing – it comes from the boys’
wooden boxes. Now, Boxing Day is an extra holiday after Christmas
But the tradition of the December
hunt is changing. Now, some people want to stop Boxing Day Hunts (and
other hunts, too). They don’t like foxhunting. For them it’s not
a sport – it is cruel.
Usually a dark-complexioned man was
chosen, and never a woman, for she would bring bad luck. The first
footer was required to carry three articles: a piece of coal to wish
warmth, a piece of bread to wish food, and a silver coin to wish
wealth. In some parts of northern England this pleasing custom is
still observed. So this interesting tradition called “First
On October 31st
British people celebrate Halloween.
It is undoubtedly the most colourful and exciting holiday of the
year. Though it is not a public holiday, it is very dear to those who
celebrate it, especially to children and teenagers. This day was
originally called All Hallow’s Eve because it fell on the eve of
All Saints’ Day. The name was later shortened to Halloween.
According to old beliefs, Halloween is the time, when the veil
between the living and the dead is partially lifted, and witches,
ghosts and other super natural beings are about. Now children
celebrate Halloween in unusual costumes and masks. It is a festival
of merrymaking, superstitions spells, fortunetelling, traditional
games and pranks. Halloween is a time for fun.
Halloween is something called
Beggars’ Night or Trick or Treat night. Some people celebrate
Beggars’ Night as Irish children did in the 17th
century. They dress up as ghosts and witches and go into the streets
to beg. And children go from house to house and say: “Trick
meaning “Give me a
treat or I’ll play a trick on you”.
Some groups of “ghosts”
chant Beggars’ Night rhymes:
Trick or treat,
Smell our feet.
We want something
Good to eat.
At Halloween parties the guests wear every kind of
costume. Some people dress up like supernatural creatures, other
prefers historical or political figures. You can also meet pirates,
princesses, Draculas, Cinderellas, or even Frankenstein’s monsters
at a Halloween festival.
is a very important day for Welsh people. It’s St.
David’s Day. He’s
the “patron” or national saint of Wales. On March 1st,
the Welsh celebrate St. Davids Day and wear daffodils in the
buttonholes of their coats or jackets.
On February 14th
in Britain. It is not a national holiday. Banks and offices do not
close, but it is a happy little festival in honour of St. Valentine.
On this day, people send Valentine cards to their husbands, wives,
girlfriends and boyfriends. You can also send a card to a person you
do not know. But traditionally you must never write your name on it.
Some British newspapers have got a page for Valentine’s Day
messages on February 14th.
This lovely day is widely celebrated among people of all
ages by the exchanging of “valentines”.
is the longest day of the year. On that day you can see a very old
custom at Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is on of
Europe’s biggest stone circles.
And every June 24th
a lot of them go to Stonehenge.
On that morning the sun shines on one famous stone – the Heel
stone. For the Druids this is a very important moment in the year.
But for a lot of British people it is just a strange old custom.
is April Fool’s
Day in Britain.
This is a very old tradition from the Middle Ages (between the fifth
and fifteenth centuries). At that time the servants were masters for
one day of the year. They gave orders to their masters, and their
masters had to obey.
There are some British traditions and customs concerning
their private life. The British are considered to be the world’s
greatest tea drinkers. And so tea is Britain’s favourite drink. The
English know how to make tea and what it does for you. In England
people say jokingly: ‘The test of good tea is simple. If a spoon
stands up in it, then it is strong enough; if the spoon starts to
wobble, it is a feeble makeshift’.
Every country has its drinking
habits, some of which are general and obvious, others most peculiar.
Most countries also have a national drink. In England the national is
beer, and the pub “pub”,
where people talk, eat, drink, meet their friends and relax.
The word “pub”
is short for “public house”. Pubs sell beer. (British beer is
always warm). An important custom in pubs is “buying a round”. In
a group, one person buys all the others a drink. This is a “round”.
Then one by one all the people buy rounds, too. If they are with
friends, British people sometimes lift their glasses before they
drink and say: “Cheers”.
This means “Good
And as you know, the British talk about the weather a
lot. They talk about the weather because it changes so often. Wind,
rain, sun, cloud, snow – they can all happen in a British winter –
or a British summer.
in Great Britain
British people are very fond of sports. Sport is a part
of their normal life. The two most popular games are football and
Football, also called soccer, is the most popular sport
in the United Kingdom. England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
have their own Football Leagues and national teams. Games are played
on Saturday afternoons from August to April. In addition to the FL
games there is a competition called the Football Associations Cup.
The Cup Final is played at Wembley Stadium(London) in May.
Cricket is considered to be the English National game.
Its rules are very complicated. Two teams of eleven men each play it,
the player at a time tries to hit ball with a bat.
Golf is the Scottish national game. It originated in the
XV century and the most famous golf course in the world, known as a
Royal and Ancient Club, is at St. Andrew’s.
Lawn tennis was first played in
Britain in the late 19th
century. The most famous British championship is Wimbledon, played
annually during the last week of June and the fist week of July.
Those are the most popular kinds of sport in the UK. But
there are many other sports such as rugby, golf, swimming,
horse-racing and the traditional fox-hunting.
Great Britain gave the world a lot of
talented people. Many famous writers and poets were born in Great
Britain. One of the best known English playwrights was William
Shakespeare. He draw ideas for his tragedies and comedies from the
history of England and ancient Rome. Many experts consider
Shakespeare the greatest writer and the greatest playwright in
England language. William Shakespeare wrote 37 plays which may be
divided into: comedies (such as A Midsummer Night’s Dream),
tragedies (such as Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth) and
historical plays (such as Richard II, Henry V, Julius Caesar, Anthony
Robert Burns represents the generation of Romantic
writers. In his poems he described with love and understanding the
simple life he knew. Among his well-known poems are Halloween, The
Jolly Beggars, To a Mouse.
George Gordon Lord Byron. His free-spirited lie style
combined with his poetic gift makes him one of the most famous
figures of the Romantic Era. His famous works such as Stanzas to
Augusta, The Prisoner of Chillon, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage,
Manfred draw readers into the passion, humors and conviction of a
poet whose life and work truly embodied the Romantic spirit.
Sir Walter Scott wrote the first examples of historical
novel; Lewis Carroll became famous when he published Alice’s
Adventures in Wonderland.
9. Places of Interest in Great
Britain is rich in its historic places which link the
present with the past.
The oldest part of London is Lud Hill, where the city
was originated. About a mile west of it there is Westminster Palace,
where the king lived and the Parliament met, and there is also
Westminster Abbey, the coronation church.
Liverpool, the “city of ships”, is England’s
second greatest port ranking after London. The most interesting sight
in the Liverpool is the docks. They occupy a river frontage of seven
miles. The University of Liverpool, established in 1903, is noted for
its school of Tropical Medicine. And in the music world Liverpool is
a well-known name, for it’s the town of “The Beatles”.
Stratford-on-Avon lies 93 miles north-west of London.
Shakespeare was born here in1564, and here he died in 1616. Cambridge
and Oxford Universities are famous centers of learning.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument, presumably build
by Druids, members of an order of priests in ancient Britain.
Tintagel Castle is King Arthur’s reputed birthplace. Canterbury is
the seat of the Archbishop o Canterbury, head of the Church of
The British Museum is the largest and riches museum in
the world. It was founded in 1753 and contains one of the world’s
richest collections of antiquities. The Egyptian Galleries contain
human and animal mummies. Some parts of Athens’ Parthenon are in
the Greek section.
Madam Tussaud’s Museum is an exhibition of hundreds of
life-size wax models of famous people of yesterday and today. The
collection was started by Madam Tussaud, a French modeler in wax, in
the 18 century. Here you can meet Marilyn Monroe, Elton John,
Picasso, the Royal family, the Beatles and many others: writers,
movie stars, singers, politicians, sportsmen, etc.
10. The British police
The British police officer – sometimes called the
“bobby” after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force –
is well-known figure to everybody, who sees British films. Policemen
keep law and order either walking in the streets or driving in cars.
In Britain the police are organized very differently from many other
countries. Britain has no national police force, instead, there is a
separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is
divided. Each has a police authority – a committee of local county
councilors and magistrates.
It is unusual for members of one force to operate in
another’s area unless they are asked to give assistance. A Chief
Constable (their senior officer of a force) sometimes may ask for
assistance of London’s police force, based at New Scotland Yard –
known simply as “the Yard”.
The British police generally do not carry guns, except
in North Ireland. Only a few police are regularly armed – for
instance, those guard politicians, diplomats or who patrol airports.
Transport in Britain
You can reach England either by plane, by train, by car
or by ship. The fastest way is by plane. London has three
international airports: Heathrow, the largest, connected to the city
by underground; Gatwick, south of London, with a frequent train
service; Luton, the smallest, used for charter flights.
If you go to England by train or by car you have to
cross the Channel. There is a frequent service of steamers and
ferry-boats which connect the continent to the south-east of England.
People in Britain drive on the left and generally
overtake on right. The speed limit is 0 miles per hour (50km/h) in
towns and cities and 70 mph (110 km/h) on motorways.
When you are in London you can choose from different
means of transport: bus, train, underground or taxi. The typical bus
in London is a red double-decker. The first London bus started
running between Paddington and the City in 1829. It carried 40
passengers and cost a shilling for six kms.
The next to arrive were the trains; now there are twelve
railway stations in London. The world’s first underground line was
opened between Baker St. and the City in 1863. Now there are ten
underground lines and 273 underground is also called the Tube,
because of the circular shape of its deep tunnels.
day in Britain has the end!
Great Britain is beautiful!
population of Great Britain is over 57 million people.
the United Kingdom is an island state the climate there is very
is not very cold in winter and never very hot in summer.
is no ice on the lakes and rivers in winter.
often rains in all seasons.
Britain is famous for its fogs.
weather changes so often that Englishmen say that they have no
climate in Great Britain, but only weather.
nature of Great Britain is picturesque.
are many rivers and beautiful lakes there.
of the most wonderful parts of the country is called Lake District.
main rivers of Great Britain are the Severn and the Thames.
are no great forests in the British Isles.
for the mountains they are not very high, but very beautiful.
most picturesque region of the country is Highlands in the North of
is the region of mountains, rivers and cosy towns and villages.
In short, I understand that I have to learn English
properly and I try to do so!
today: Life and Institutions. – Moscow: INFRA-M, 2001.
200 Тем Английского
Языка./Сост.: Бойко В., Жидких Н., Каверина
В., Панина Е. – Москва: Издательство
Иванова В.И., 2001.
Книга для чтения к
учебнику английского языка для 8 класса
средней школы./Сост.: Копыл Е.Г., Боровик
М.А. Изд. 2-е. Москва, «Просвещение», 1999.
... around the world II. May DayinGreatBritain III. May Spring Festival * Заключение ... (come help me). May Day is a fictional character too in the James Bond ... the European Union. II. May DayinGreatBritain The May garland is a symbol ...
... holydays inGreatBritain There are only six public holidays a year inGreatBritain, that ... heads; And mamma in her 'kerchief, and I inmy cap, Had just ... mid-day to objects below, When, what to my wondering ... unto you is born this dayin the city of David a ...
... GreatBritainin XVIII–XX centuries Plan: GreatBritainin XVIII century GreatBritainin XIX century GreatBritainin XX century GreatBritainin ... intз`fiзrзns] in their day to day work. So ... [`prougræmiŋ] – составление программы in different parts ...
... to church inBritain today. Most people see Sunday as a day for relaxing ... abstract Inmy course work I want to tell you about GreatBritain and its ... Protestants therefore knew that their day of triumph had come, they ...
... of GreatBritain There are a lot of political issues inGreatBritain today. ... which are all listed inmy bibliography, but the opinions ... used to support my views. First let me explain the process ... one important test: day-to-day scrutiny of their motives ...