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You must pray to heaven's guardian for relief.

  • He proved a Judas to the cause.

  • There is much of Cicero in this letter.

  • She held herself like a daughter of the Caesars.

    (W.S. Maugham)

    • Miss This Miss That Miss Theother

    (J. Joyce)

    • Task 9.

    Analyze the given piece and give your interpretation of Moscow (Ryazan etc) or some life experiences.

    • Ника остался один.

    Тянул через соломинку слабоалкогольный коктейль «текила-санрайз», неспешно разглядывал беззаботных обитателей третьего тысячелетия христианской эры и размышлял о том, как изменилась Москва и москвичи с тех пор, как он впервые приехал в этот город. Всего-то шесть лет прошло, а город не узнать. Вне всякого сомнения, Москва – существо женского пола. У нее ослаблено чувство времени, поэтому в отличие от городов-мужчин она равнодушна к прошлому и живет исключительно настоящим. Вчерашние памятники для нее мало что значат – Москва без сожаления расстается с ними, у нее короткая память и несентиментальное сердце. Это у мужчины сердцебиение и слезы умиления на глазах, когда он встречает возлюбленную прежних лет. Женщине, во всяком случае, большинству из них, такая встреча неинтересна и даже неприятна, поскольку никак не связана с ее нынешними проблемами и сегодняшней жизнью. Вот и Москва точь-в-точь такая же, обижаться на нее за это бессмысленно. Как поется в одной хорошей песне, она как вода, принимающая форму сосуда, в котором находится.

    Когда Фандорин увидел ее впервые, она была бедной замарашкой, жадной до пестрых иностранных наклеек и завистливой на чужое богатство. Но с тех пор она поправила материальное положение, обрела исконную дебелость и вернулась в свое природное амплуа. Больше всего Москва напоминала Николасу любимый чеховский типаж: красивую, но чуть перезрелую барыньку, немного циничную и пресыщенную, не слишком счастливую в любви, все на свете перевидавшую, но все еще жадную до жизни. Днем эта Аркадина-Раневская-Войницева хандрит, ходит в затрапезе, но к вечеру, как соберутся гости, припудрится, расфуфырится, нацепит бриллиантовое колье из огней, подвесит серьги из прожекторов и превратится в такую светскую львицу, что ослепнуть можно.

    (Б. Акунин)

    • I contemplated this as we walked out of the hospital together. Had I been happy for ages? I hadn’t realized. I just thought it was normal – the tired, bored, dragging sense of life passing by, the lack of spark, the loss of interest in anything. Didn’t other people feel like that, then? Didn’t they wake up with a groan when they realized they were still the same person, still with the same old life and hadn’t changed over night into a princess living in a palace somewhere tropical.

    (Sh. Norton)

    • Task 10.

    Account for the usage of certain devices in various kinds of art other than literature. Clarify your understanding by examples. e.g. Cinema – metonymy

    Music, ikebana; painting; sculpture; architecture – metaphor; dancing – hyperbole, meiosis.

    Reference materials:

    Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

    Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

    Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”

    Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

    Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

    SEMINAR 7.

    Syntax

    1. Syntactical stylistic devices, various approaches. Figures of speech.

    2. Inversion.

    3. Ellipsis.

    4. Aposiopesis.

    5. Apokoinu construction.

    6. Rhetorical questions.

    7. Detachment.

    8. Represented speech.

    9. Parenthetic sentences.

    10. Suspense. Climax – anticlimax.

    • Task 1.

    Study the information and explain the possibilities of syntactical stylistic devices in the expressive speech. What is called “figures of speech”? Be ready to distinguish tropes from figures of speech.

    Syntax studies ways of word connection in word collocations and sentences, nature and ways of design of the relations between words in the sentences. But the thought, expressed by the sentence, can receive different shades depending on the use of various syntactical patterns, this or that word order in the sentence, this or that way of connection between parts of the utterance. The syntactical designs, existing in language, are capable of expressing approximately identical contents of thought.

    Syntactical stylistic devices deal with the syntactical arrangement of the utterance, which makes it emphatic irrespective of the lexical meanings of the employed units. It should be observed that oral speech is usually more emphatic than the written type of speech. Various syntactical structures deliberately employed by the author to create the desired effect, in oral speech are used automatically as a norm of oral intercourse.

    • Task 2.

    Discuss various approaches to the classification of syntactical stylistic devices (Arnold, Kuznetz – Skrebnev; Skrebnev; Galperin); try to single out the basis of this or that list and think of some other approach possible.

    • Task 3.

    Inversion.

    English language, being an analytical one, unlike Russian or Latin, is characterized by fixed word order, which is Subject – Predicate – Object. Any change of the usual order is significant and of greater stylistic value than in Russian. Inversion deals with the displacement of the predicate (which is the case complete inversion) or with the displacement of secondary members of the sentence (which is the case of partial inversion) and their shift towards the front, opening position in the sentence. If word order is re-established in questions, we can speak of secondary inversion. It is vital not to mix up grammatical inversion (I am late – Am I late etc.) and stylistic inversion aimed at achieving a certain artistic effect.

    Besides conveying the tone and manner of the speaker, inverted structures a connotational meaning. It can be emphasis; representation of colloquial, spontaneous, highly emotive speech; for the sake of suspense etc.

    a) Look through the given examples and state whether they contain cases of complete or partial inversion:

    • The wardrobe had to be next. Off their hangers came dresses that hadn’t fitted me since the 80s. Out of the shelves came trousers I wouldn’t be seen dead in even if the did still fit me. Into the bin-bags went shoes so outdated my granny would have cringed at them.

    (Sh. Norton)

    • Black leather shoes, dirty; suit of boating flannels, very dirty; brown felt hat, much battered; makintosh, very wet; umbrella.

    (J. K. Jerome)

    • Her sickness is only grief?” he asked, his difficult English lending the question an unintended irony. “She is grieving only?”… “She is only grieving?” insisted Jose. (T. Capote)

    • Each man is the whole world, to make over as he will and to fill with a human race he can love, if it is love he has, or a race he must hate, if it is hate he has.

    (W. Saroyan)

    • Whirling wreaths of grey vapour upon the heath. Her face, how grey and grave! Dank matted hair. Her lips press softly, her sighing breath comes through. Kissed.

    (J. Joyce)

    • So am I as rich, whose blessed key

    Can bring him to his sweet up-locked treasure

    The which he will not every hour survey,

    For blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure.

    Therefore are feasts so solemn and so rare,

    Since, seldom coming, in the long year set,

    Like stones of worth they thinly placed are,

    Or captain jewels in the carcanet.

    So is the time that keeps you as my chest,

    Or as the wardrobe which the robe doth hide,

    To make some special instant special blest,

    By new unfolding his imprison’d pride.

    Blessed are you, whose worthiness gives scope,

    Being had, to triumph, being lack’d, to hope.

    (W. Shakespare)

    b) Read the sentences and make them more expressive with the help of inversion if possible. Explain your choice.

    • He laughed so much that tears rolled down his cheeks.

    • So much…

    • The papers blew away.

    • Away…

    • Don’t show these figures to anyone on any account. (should)

    • On no account…

    • She remembered the man’s name after he had walked away.

    • Only after he had walked away…

    • As soon as he had eaten his dinner, he jumped up and began to dance.

    • No ….

    • Task 4.

    Ellipsis.

    In ellipsis, which is the omission of one of the main members of a sentence, when the missing parts are either present in the syntactical environment of the sentence (context), or are implied by the situation, we must differentiate the one used in the author’s narration to change its tempo and condense its structure from the one used in personages’ speech to reflect oral norms and lend the dialogue a natural and authentic tone.

    A) State the function of the following ellipses. Indicate most frequently omitted members of the sentence. Is it possible to reconstruct them or does one need an larger context?

    • What happiness was ours that day, what joy, what rest, what hope, what gratitude, what bliss!

    (Ch. Dickens)

    • “…what the devil you are laughing at?” – “Not at you, Papa. At life. It’s so damned crazy.”

    (E. O’Neill)

    • Words can help you if your mind can only grasp them…Your…has left you. He’s never going to come back again. Never in the world. Never.

    (T. Rattigan)

    • Implacable November weather. Dogs undistinguishable in mire. Horses, scarcely better; splashed to their very blinkers.

    (Ch. Dickens)

      • А потом мальчик приходит из школы…такой странный…

    Родители спрашивают: «Ну как»?

    А чего «как»? …Чего «как»? Да точно также! В точности. Вы же там сами были. Вы же… Так что не надо… знаете же…

    (Е. Гришковец)

    B) Reconstruct the elliptical sentences in given pieces of dialogue. Account for your choice.

    • “But what colour was this balloon when it – when it was a balloon?”

    “Red.”

    “I just wondered …. Red,” he murmured to himself. “My favourite colour …. How big was it? ”

    “About as big as me.”

    “I just wondered …. About as big as Piglet,” he said to himself sadly. “My favourite size. Well, well.”

    (A. A. Milne)

    • I’ll take my oath I put it down on that chair,” said George, staring at the empty seat.

    I saw it myself, not a minute ago,said Harris.

    Most extraordinary thing I ever heard of,” said George.

    So mysterious!” said Harris.

    (J. K. Jerome)

      • Where are you going?

    Out.

    When will you be back?

    Dunno.

    What about you homework?

    nt got any.

    (Sh. Norton)

    • Task 5.

    Aposiopesis.

    Sudden break in the narration, or aposiopesis, is a norm of excited oral speech. As a device it is used to indicate strong emotions or deliberate stop in the utterance to conceal its meaning. Certain phrases, often repeated with the intonation of the nonfinished sentence, become trite aposiopesis. They indicate that the speaker’s idea of the possible continuation of the utterance exists in a very general, non-detailed, vague form.

    1. Consider the given cases of aposiopesis and try to define its cause:

        • a person is unable to speak (has no information; is overwhelmed with emotions – too much excitement; is scared etc.)

        • a person is unwilling to speak

        • a flow of thought and speech is interrupted by an idea or somebody’s remark

        • other

    • “ Hulloa! What’s that for?” – “What’s that for? Why - - ” No, on second thoughts, I will not repeat what Harris said. I may have been to blame, I admit it; but nothing excuses violence of language and coarseness of expression, especially in a man who has been carefully brought up, as I know Harris has been.



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