Поиск

Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
везде
только в названии
только в тексте
Выводить:
описание
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Иностранный язык->Реферат
б) соотнесенность слова с каким-либо явлением объективной действительности. в) закрепленная в сознании говорящего соотнесенность слова с явлением дейс...полностью>>
Иностранный язык->Реферат
Актуальность выбранной темы является необходимость дальнейшей разработки одного из важнейших аспектов теории перевода – проблемы переводимости. Данное...полностью>>
Иностранный язык->Реферат
There are many rivers in Britain, but they are not long, the longest being the Thames. Many canals are known to have been built to connect the inland ...полностью>>
Иностранный язык->Реферат
1. Флексия. Так в словосочетании книга Петра связь между словами достигается при помощи окончания а. 2. Служебные слова (предлоги, союзы, частицы, арт...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Иностранный язык

Сохрани ссылку на реферат в одной из сетей:

236


PRINCIPLES of

LANGUAGE LEARNING
AND TEACHING

FOURTH EDITION

H. DOUGLAS BROWN


CONTENTS

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION…………………………………………………………… 7

1 LANGUAGE, LEARNING, AND TEACHING………………………………………….10

CURRENT ISSUES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION……………………..……10

…………………………………………………………………………………..12

LEARNING AND TEACHING………………………………………………………………14

SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION…………………...15

Structuralism/Behaviorism……………………………………………………………...15

Rationalism and Cognitive Psychology………………………………………………...16

Constructivism…………………………………………………………………………..17

LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY………………………………………………19

In the Classroom: The Grammar Translation Method…………………………………………… 20

TOPICS AND QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION………………………………… 21

SUGGESTED READINGS…………………………………………………………………………… 22

LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE: JOURNAL ENTRY 1……………………………… 23

2 FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION……………………………………………………24

THEORIES OF FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION………………………………………24

Behavioristic Approaches………………………………………………………………25

The Nativist Approach………………………………………………………………….27

Functional Approaches…………………………………………………………………29

Cognition and Language Development………………………………………….29

Social Interaction and Language Development…………………………………30

ISSUES IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION…………………………………………...32

Competence and Performance………………………………………………………….32

Comprehension and Production………………………………………………………...34

Nature or Nurture?.........................................................................................................35

……………………………………………………………………………….35

Systematicity and Variability…………………………………………………………...37

Language and Thought………………………………………………………………….37

Imitation ………………………………………………………………………………..38

Practice………………………………………………………………………………….39

Input……………………………………………………………………………………..40

Discourse………………………………………………………………………………..40

In The Classroom: Gouin and Berlitz – The First Performer…………………………………… 42

Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion……………………………………………………44

Suggested Readings…………………………………………………………………………………… 44

Language Learning Experiment: Journal Entry 2…………………………………………………45

3 AGE AND ACQUISITION…………………………………………………………………46

DISPELLING MYTHS………………………………………………………………………..46

TYPES OF COMPARISON AND CONTRAST……………………………………………..48

THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS……………………………………………………49

NEUROLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS…………………………………………………….49

Hemispheric Lateralization……………………………………………………………..49

Biological Timetables………………………………………………………………….50

Right-Hemispheric Participation……………………………………………………….51

Anthropological Evidence……………………………………………………………...52

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ACCENT…………………………………………………………52

COGNITIVE CONSIDERATIONS…………………………………………………………..54

AFFECTIVE CONSIDERATIONS…………………………………………………………...56

LINGUISTIC CONSIDERATIONS…………………………………………………………..58

Bilingualism…………………………………………………………………………….59

Interference Between First and Second Languages…………………………………….59

Interference in Adults…………………………………………………………………...59

Order of Acquisition…………………………………………………………………….60

ISSUES IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION REVISITED……………………………..61

In the Classroom: The Audiolingual Method……………………………………………………… 64

TOPICS AND QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION………………………………… 65

SUGGESTED READINGS…………………………………………………………………………… 66

LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE: JOURNAL ENTRY 3…………………………………66

4 HUMAN LEARNING……………………………………………………………………. 68

LEARNING AND TRAINING……………………………………………………………….68

PAVLOV'S CLASSICAL BEHAVIORISM………………………………………………….69

SKINNER’S OPERANT CONDITIONING…………………………………………………69

AUSUBEL'S MEANINGFUL LEARNING THEORY………………………………………71

Systematic Forgetting…………………………………………………………………..74

ROGERS'S HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY……………………………………………….. 76

TYPES OF LEARNING………………………………………………………………………78

TRANSFER, INTERFERENCE, AND OVERGENERALIZATION………………………..79

INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING……………………………………………82

APTITUDE AND INTELLIGENCE………………………………………………………….82

In the Classroom: The "Designer" Methods of the 1970s…………………………………………86

TOPICS AND QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION………………………………… 91

SUGGESTED READINGS…………………………………………………………………………… 92

LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE: JOURNAL ENTRY 4…………………………………92

5 STYLES AND STRATEGIES…………………………………………………………….93

PROCESS, STYLE, AND STRATEGY………………………………………………………93

LEARNING STYLES ………………………………………………………………………...94

Field Independence……………………………………………………………………..94

Left- and Right-Brain Functioning……………………………………………………..97

Ambiguity Tolerance……………………………………………………………………98

Reflectivity and Impulsivity…………………………………………………………….99

Visual and Auditory Styles……………………………………………………………100

STRATEGIES………………………………………………………………………………..100

Learning Strategies…………………………………………………………………….101

Communication Strategies…………………………………………………………….103

Avoidance Strategies……………………………………………………………..104

Compensatory Strategies………………………………………………………..105

STRATEGIES-BASED INSTRUCTION…………………………………………………..106

In the Classroom: Styles and Strategies in Practice…………………………………………… 109

TOPICS AND QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION……………………………… 112

SUGGESTED READINGS………………………………………………………………………… 113

LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE: JOURNAL ENTRY 5………………………………114

6 PERSONALITY FACTORS……………………………………………………………..115

THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN………………………………………………………………..115

Self-Esteem……………………………………………………………………………117

Inhibition………………………………………………………………………………118

Risk – Taking………………………………………………………………………….120

Anxiety………………………………………………………………………………...121

Empathy………………………………………………………………………………..122

Extroversion…………………………………………………………………………...124

MYERS-BRIGGS CHARACTER TYPES…………………………………………………..125

MOTIVATION……………………………………………………………………………….128

Instrumental and Integrative Orientations…………………………………………….130

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation…………………………………………………….131

THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF AFFECT………………………………………….…………...133

MEASURING AFFECTIVE FACTORS……………………………………………………..134

In the Classroom: Putting Methods into Perspective…………………………………………… 135

TOPICS AND QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION…………………………………138

SUGGESTED READINGS……………………………………………………………………………139

LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE: JURNAL ENTRY 6…………………………………139

7 SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS…………………………………………………………141

FROM STEREOTYPES TO GENERALIZATIONS………………………………………..142

ATTITUDES………………………………………………………………………………... 144

SECOND CULTURE ACQUISITION………………………………………………………145

SOCIAL DISTANCE………………………………………………………………………...147

CULTURE IN THE CLASSROOM…………………………………………………………150

LANGUAGE POLICY AND POLITICS……………………………………………………152

World EnglishesESL and EFL…………………………………………………………………………..153

Linguistic Imperialism and Language Rights…………………………………………154

Language Policy and the "English Only" Debate……………………………………..155

LANGUAGE, THOUGHT, AND CULTURE………………………………………………156

In the Classroom: Toward a Principled Approach to Language Pedagogy………………… 159

TOPICS AND QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION…………………………………161

SUGGESTED READINGS……………………………………………………………………………162

LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE: JOURNAL ENTRY 7……………………………… 163

8 CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCE AND LEARNER LANGUAGE……………….164

THE CONSTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS HYPOTHESIS…………………………………….. 164

FROM THE CAH TO CLI (CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCE)………………………..166

MARKEDNESS AND UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR………………………………………...168

LEARNER LANGUAGE……………………………………………………………………169

ERROR ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………170

Mistakes and Errors……………………………………………………………………171

Errors in Error Analysis……………………………………………………………….172

Identifying and Describing Errors…………………………………………………….173

Sources of Error……………………………………………………………………….176

Interlingual Transfer…………………………………………………………….176

Intralingual Transfer…………………………………………………………….176

Context of Learning…………………………………………………………….178

Communication Strategies……………………………………………………...178

STAGES OF LEARNER LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT……………………………...…179

VARIABILITY IN LEARNER LANGUAGE………………………………………………180

FOSSILIZATION…………………………………………………………………………….182

FORM - FOCUSED INSTRUCTION……………………………………………………….183

ERROR TREATMENT……………………………………………………………………...184

In the Classroom: A Model for Error Treatment………………………………………………… 187

TOPICS AND QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION…………………………………190

SUGGESTED READINGS……………………………………………………………………………191

LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE: JOURNAL ENTRY 8……………………………… 192

9 COMMNICATIVE COMPETENCE……………………………………………………193

DEFINING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE…………………………………………193

LANGUAGE FUNCTION…………………………………………………………………...195

FUNCTIONAL SYLLABUSES……………………………………………………………..198

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………...199



Скачать работу

Похожие работы:

  1. Methods and Principles of Teaching Vocabulary

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... . LTP Brown, H. D. (1987) Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company ... book "Principles of language learning and teaching" offers lots of psychological and scientific information regarding ...
  2. Language and culture.Writing skills

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... upon which your work, your learning, and your intellect will be judged ... to Language Study) 1998 Sonia Nieto Language, Culture, and Teaching: Critical Perspectives (Language, Culture, and Teaching Series ...
  3. Computer programmes as a mean of teaching

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... a part of computer-assisted language learning 7 1.1 Computer-assisted language learning and the history of its ... “Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer ...
  4. Новые возможности общения достижения лингвистики, переводоведения и технологии преподавания язы

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... language learning , the needs are for sound teaching, appropriate and relevant materials, continuity, and explicit teaching ... ? How does culture relate to language learning and teaching? As it is known all ...
  5. Language Acquisition Essay Research Paper Abstract The

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning (Stoller and Grabe, Norwood, NJ:Ablex), Stoller and Grabe ... Sentence to Discourse: Discourse Grammar and English Language Teaching, TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 3. No ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...