born at his family?s estate at Hyde Park, in Dutchess County, New
York on January 30,1882. He was the only child of James Roosevelt and
Sara Delano Roosevelt. James Roosevelt was a moderately successful
businessman, with a variety of investments and a special interest in
coal. He was also a conservative Democrat who was interested in
politics. His home overlooking the Hudson River was comfortable
without being ostentatious, and the family occupied a prominent
position among the social elite of the area. Sara Delano, 26 years
younger than her previously widowed husband, brought to the marriage
a fortune considerably larger than that of James Roosevelt. The
Delano family had prospered trading with China, and Sara herself had
spent some time with her parents in Hong Kong. So, Franklin was born
into a pleasant and sociable home, with loving wealthy parents.
parents sent him off to school in 1896. They selected Groton School
in Massachusetts, which had a reputation as one of the finest of the
exclusive private schools that prepared boys for the Ivy League
colleges. Young Roosevelt was a good student, popular with his fellow
students as well as with his teachers.
to New York City, where he entered the Columbia University Law School
in 1904. Although he attended classes until 1907, he failed to stay
on for his law degree after passing the state examinations allowing
him to practice law. For the next three years he was a clerk in a
prominent law firm in New York City, but the evidence is clear that
he had little interest in law and little enthusiasm to be a lawyer.
Well before he
finished his work at Columbia, young Franklin Roosevelt had married
his distant cousin Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. They had been in love for
some time and were determined to marry in spite of the opposition of
Franklin?s mother. The bride?s uncle, President Theodore Roosevelt,
was present at the ceremony in New York City on March 17, 1905. Five
of their six children grew to maturity: Anna, James, Elliott,
Franklin, Jr., and John. The chief problem faced by the young couple
during the early years of their marriage was Sara Roosevelt?s
possessive attitude toward her son. Eleanor?s forbearance mitigated
this situation, but the problem remained for many years.
entered politics in 1910, when he became a candidate for the New York
State Senate in a district composed of three upstate farming
counties. Democratic leaders had approached young Roosevelt because
of his name and local prominence?and because he might be expected to
pay his own election expenses. The 28-year-old Roosevelt campaigned
hard, stressing his deep personal interest in conservation and other
issues of concern in an agricultural area and also his strong support
of honest and efficient government. In the first good year for
Democrats since the early 1890s he was narrowly elected. He was only
the second Democrat to represent his district after the emergence of
the Republican Party in 1856.
In the state
capitol at Albany, Roosevelt gained statewide publicity as the leader
of a small group of upstate Democrats who refused to follow the
leadership of Tammany Hall, also known as the Tammany Society, the
Democratic Party organization of New York City. In particular, they
refused to vote for the rich politician William F. ?Blue-Eyed Bill?
Sheehan for U.S. senator. Roosevelt?s group succeeded in blocking the
election of Sheehan, which infuriated Tammany Hall. The dramatic
struggle drew the attention of New York voters to the tall vigorous
new state senator with the magic name of Roosevelt. He soon became a
dedicated social and economic reformer, and a political independent.
He was reelected in 1912, in spite of a case of typhoid fever that
kept him from campaigning.
Even before his
reelection to the New York legislature, Roosevelt had entered the
national political arena by taking part in the campaign of Governor
Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey for the Democratic nomination for
president. Once again the young state senator was a member of a
minority group among New York Democrats. When Wilson won at both the
convention and the polls in 1912, his early supporters were rewarded,
and Roosevelt became assistant secretary of the United States Navy.
Roosevelt resigned his state senate seat and moved to Washington,
D.C., to take over the position once occupied by his cousin Theodore
Roosevelt?s years as assistant secretary, from 1913 to 1920, taught
him both how to get things accomplished and, just as important for an
executive, how to avoid unnecessary trouble. He had the devoted
assistance of Louis Howe, who came along to the nation?s capital as
Roosevelt?s assistant. Roosevelt?s superior was Secretary of the Navy
Josephus Daniels, a North Carolina editor. Daniels was a close friend
and devoted follower of Nebraska editor and former Representative
William Jennings Bryan, three times the Democratic candidate for
president and Wilson?s secretary of state. Like Bryan, Daniels was
concerned about agrarian issues and was a progressive reformer. He
was also an isolationist (someone who believed that the United States
should avoid alliances with other nations), who hated the idea of
war. Young Roosevelt, an energetic supporter of a bigger navy and
soon a warm friend of most of the leading admirals, inevitably had
many disagreements with his chief, especially during Wilson?s first
term. Daniels had the confidence both of the president and of the
most influential Democrats in the Congress of the United States;
Roosevelt had neither of these. However, in time the two men came to
have genuine respect for one another?s different talents, and they
remained good friends.
struck Roosevelt in August 1921, when he contracted what was
diagnosed, after an unfortunate delay, as poliomyelitis. He had been
plagued by illness of various sorts during the previous decade, and
he had overexerted himself swimming and hiking at Campobello. In
great agony and completely unable to walk, Roosevelt seemed to have
reached the end of his active public career. Indeed, his mother
wanted him to return to Hyde Park for the peace and quiet of the life
of a country gentleman. However, backed by the determination of his
wife and Louis Howe, Roosevelt decided to return to his work as soon
as possible. In spite of the efforts of numerous specialists and of
his strenuous exercises, particularly swimming at his ?second home?
in Warm Springs, Georgia, he was never again able to walk unaided. He
spent most of his working hours in a wheelchair, and he walked with
leg braces and canes, usually with help. Through the worst years of
his paralysis, Roosevelt was amazingly cheerful. Eleanor Roosevelt
often acted as her husband?s eyes and ears, bringing him information
and conferring with people he was no longer readily able to meet.
Howe remained close by Roosevelt, assisting him in many ways and
planning for his return to public life.
continued to busy himself with Democratic politics after his illness.
And in 1928 Roosevelt made a run for the Governor of New York, and
won by a narrow margin.
In October 1929
the economic prosperity that the United States had enjoyed for most
of the 1920s came to an abrupt end. Following the stock market crash
of October 1929 Roosevelt found himself a depression governor, with
new problems to face. In 1930 he was reelected by the unprecedented
number of 725,000 votes.
In 1932 there
was a presidential election and Roosevelt got the Democratic
nomination, but had a tough time doing it. Roosevelt had more
difficulty in winning the Democratic nomination in 1932 than he had
in defeating President Hoover. In spite of Hoover?s unprecedented
efforts to use the power of the federal government to overcome the
Great Depression, he was completely identified with the policies of
former U.S. presidents Warren Harding and of Calvin Coolidge, since
he had served as secretary of commerce in both administrations.
Roosevelt?s task was essentially a simple one: to convince the
American people that because the Republicans had claimed full credit
for the prosperity of the 1920s, they should receive full blame for
the depression. Roosevelt was spectacularly successful at this.
first inaugural address, with its pledge to make war upon the
depression and its ringing phrase, ?we have nothing to fear but fear
itself,? brought a new style to the U.S. presidency.
Not long after
being in office Roosevelt started a new program, that would hopefully
get the U.S. out of the depression called the ?New Deal?. After many
great accomplishments in office Roosevelt was re-elected in 1936 to
his second term, after this term most expected him not to run again
in 1940, out of tradition that no president before him served no more
than two terms, but he ran anyway and won by a fair margin.
In 1938 Hitler
of Germany started WWII by invading Poland, and Roosevelt knew it
wouldn?t be long until the U.S. was brought into the war, so he
started supplying the Allies with weapons and ships on a ?lend-lease
program?. Then on December the 7th 1941, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor
and brought the U.S. into the war.
not live to see the end of World War II. During the war years he had
not appeared often in public, but during his campaign for a fourth
term in 1944 many who saw him said that he looked pale, thin, and
old. The election, which resulted in his victory over New York
Governor Thomas E. Dewey, was a strain on the president, as was the
long trip to Yalta. In the early spring of 1945 he went to Warm
Springs, Georgia, in an effort to recapture his lost energy. There he
died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945. Harry Truman
took the oath of office to become president the same day.
Franklin Delano RooseveltEssay, ResearchPaper In what ways can Franklin Delano Roosevelt lay claim to ... War II. Born in 1882 in Hide Park N.Y, he was raised in ... his physical limitations, Franklin Delano Rooseveltwas a highly popular president. He shaped ...
Theodore RooseveltEssay, ResearchPaper Outline Thesis: Theodore Roosevelt’s political presence altered the ... States into its modern era. Rooseveltwasborn on October 27, 1858, ... sense, he did not. Theodore Rooseveltwasborn into a house of strikingly ...
Theodore RooseveltEssay, ResearchPaperRoosevelt, Theodore (1858-1919), 26th president ... of a wealthy, socially prominent merchant, Rooseveltwasborn in New York City on ... and greater military preparedness. Rooseveltwas gradually reconciled with his former ...
... her office. INTRODUCTION This researchpaper gives an overview of ... CHURCHILL’S BIOGRAPHY Winston Churchill wasborn on Nov. 30, 1874 ... commitment Churchill received from Rooseveltwas that “the United States ... also had to reassure each other of mutual support. ...
RooseveltEssay, ResearchPaper Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United states Was the youngest President in ... the log cabin Presidents. he wasborn in New York city on ... the Battle of San Juan. Rooseveltwas one of the most conspicuous ...