Waco For The Charred Land Of The
Free Essay, Research Paper
first heard of David Koresh, the charismatic leader of the religious
sect that came to be called The Branch Dividians , and the Dividians
themselves, in February of 1993, but the Branch Dividians had existed
for fifty years before Koresh was even born.
They were a
break off of the Seven Day Adventist s Church, and were originally
lead by a man by the name of Victor Halhead. They were formed in
1935, and based their lives around the belief that God would once
again visit them in the form of a living profit. Halhead claimed to
be this prophet, and relocated the group from California to Mount
Carmel, which is located 10 miles outside of Waco, Texas.
They studied the
Bible as literal truth. The book of Revelation and it s cryptic seven
seals. The Christians believe that the seven seals tell God s plan
for the sequence of events leading up to Judgment Day, and can only
be deciphered by a messiah who would come near the end of days.
Five years after
Halhead s death, the Dividians gathered at Mount Carmel, believing
Armageddon, the final fight between good and evil described within
the Bible, was close at hand.
church almost disappeared after that, but Bill and Lois Roden kept a
small group together. After Bill s death, Lois continued on, and
began training a young Vernon Howell as her understudy. When Lois
Roden died, a power struggle between Vernon and Lois s son George
began for leadership.
backed Howell. When Roden chased them away at gunpoint, they
temporarily lived in Palistine, Texas, sleeping in rusted out buses
and tents. But in late 1987, Howell returned with seven male
followers, dressed in camouflage and armed with five .223 caliber
semi-automatic assault rifles, two .22 caliber rifles, two
twelve-gauge shotguns, and nearly four hundred rounds ammunition.
During the gunfight, Roden was shot in the chest and hands
Vernon and his
followers were put on trial for attempted murder. The seven were
aquitted and a mistrial was declared in Vernon s case. Howell told
the jury that he and his followers had gone to Mount Carmel to search
for evidence of corpse abuse by Roden, and their shots were aimed at
George Roden was
later convicted of murder in an unrelated matter.
Howell came into power and became the official leader of the Branch
Dividians. He then legally changed his name to David Koresh. David
because he believed he was now head of the Biblical House of David,
and Koresh because Koresh is the Hebrew translation Cyrus, the
Persian king who allowed the Jews held captive in Babylon to return
He did not claim
to be Jesus, but instead to be that final messiah mentioned in the
Book of Revelations, the seventh messenger. He claimed to be the
Sinful Messiah mentioned in the book. The phrase Sinful Messiah was
picked up by the Waco-Tribune, and used in a negative tone. It was
not meant to be the negative title the paper made it seem. It simply
meant that, unlike Jesus, this messiah would be an ordinary human,
one who is not without sin.
Koresh s teachings, the congregation grew. They took the lumber from
the cottages they had lived in before, and used it to build the
Communal Church, referred to as a Compound during the upcoming siege.
were well respected members of the Waco Community. As Jack Harwell,
the sheriff of McLennan County said,
They were good
people. Sure, they had different beliefs than you and me, in their
way of life, and especially in their religious beliefs, but they were
still good people. I was around them a lot. They were always nice,
well mannered, never overbearing. I liked them
(Waco: Rules Of
Engagement, SP 00:12:00)
One of the major
prophecies which existed among the Branch Dividians was that there
would be a massive confrontation between God s people (those of Mount
Carmel) and the forces of an armed Apostate power, called Babylon.
Due to this belief, Koresh and his followers became interested in
guns. David was a strong believer in the 2nd amendment, and peoples
right to defend themselves. He believed that this was a great
government. He said What s great is that we have freedom. Not freedom
for speech, or freedom for religion, but freedom for all (Waco: Rules
Of Engagement, SP00:20:30) He pretty quickly found out there was lots
of money to be made at gun shows, and before long, they began going
to gun shows. They bought and sold. The combination of their being a
cult, and the fact that they were stockpiling weapons , brought them
attention from the ATF. Now, whether the ATF was justified in
targeting the Dividians for this is debatable, as all gun dealers
stockpile weapons. But either way, this helped convince the ATF that
the Dividians were a threat to the population as a whole, and action
needed to be taken.
On the morning
of Feb 28, ATF agents and the local police blocked the roads leading
to the Mount Carmel center. The ATF raid team was suiting up,
planning to surprise the Dividians. Most of 130 Branch Dividians
within the compound were unaware of the impending raid until just
minutes before it began. A group of news personnel had set themselves
up out side, and apparently that s what tipped them off.
was an ATF agent undercover in the compound. When Koresh told the
Dividians of the upcoming raid, and told them to get prepared, Robert
ran outside and over to the command post, telling the team of
coordinators the element of surprise had been lost, the raid must be
called off. His warning went unheeded, and this proved to be a grave
helicopters arrived at first, and were supposed to fly behind the
compound and distract the Dividians while the ground troops were
approaching from the front in covered cattle trailers.
As the cattle
trailer stopped in front, dozens of ATF agents jumped out. There is
much debate over from where the first shot came, whether an ATF agent
fired or a Dividian did. But regardless of that, the firefight had
begun. ATF agents took cover behind the cattle cars and fired through
the front metal door at Dividians who were firing out at them.
Meanwhile, more agents set up ladders and climbed onto the roof of
the compound, breaking windows and attempting to fire through at
those inside. Helicopters flew over head, and armed men within these
leaned out and fired through any windows they could get good aim at.
17 year-old Peter Gentless climbed atop a silo to try and see what
was happening. There is video in which you can clearly see a
helicopter fly over head, and then the Dividian s body drops out of
view and doesn t stand up again, making it appear he was shot by the
agent within the helicopter, despite the Peter s being unarmed. The
Dividians were not allowed to remove the body from the water tower
for five days.
What should have
been a peaceful serving of a warrant, an agent approaching the front
door and explaining the terms of the warrant, had become a blood
bath. As the rest of the agents were battling it out with the
Dividians, one agent walked over to the pen in which the children s
five Alaskan malamutes dogs were kept, and shot the dogs in cold
blood. Wayne Martin, a Branch Dividian called 911 during the attack
and begged for them to call the agents back, that there were women
and children in danger. Eventually, the ATF was forced to fall back
and call a cease fire at noon. A call was put out for an ambulance,
and the ATF got its wounded men to a hospital. The ATF had done
poorly in the confrontation. They had measly 9mm s, while the
Dividians were armed .45 caliber s and the such. The ATF lost four
agents, and more than twenty were injured.
One Dividian was
searching for his friend Winston after the ATF agents had been forced
to retreat and fall back. As he neared Winston s room, he could hear
water running. He turned the corner to find Winston lying dead in a
pool of blood next to his bed. The window had been shattered, and the
water tanks outside had been riddled full of bullets. The angle
suggests that the bullets had to have come from a helicopter.
refused to surrender. A siege ensued, and 668 FBI personnel were
eventually called in. (Hamm, pg.104)
siege, Jim Cavanaugh, the FBI s negotiator, had many recorded
conversations with David Koresh, such as this one, in which they talk
about what s going to be happening next;
Jim: If you die…
you tell me… if you die from that wound, I want you to tell me what
s going to happen.
David: Well, I m
not going to be around any more, am I, to influence anybody, right?
David: No Jim,
Jim: This has
been painful for all of us…
Jim listen… listen Jim… There s nothing that hurts me more than
being called a cult leader, alright? If I m wrong, people like me don
t deserve to live, OK?
Jim: …listen …
David: Do you
understand me Jim? If you let the people, think, cause you know, they
re all scared around here now. You know, don t burn our building
Jim: Awe… we
won t do that.
David: Don t
shoot us all up… they ve got to have that time.
Jim: But David,
if you die, you re leaving your people helpless.
they re God s people… I m just an instrument, OK? I show them out
of a book what God teaches. Then it s for them to decide. (Waco:
Rules Of Engagement, SP01:07:30)
Jim and David
also had other conversations. Jim was mainly trying to calm David
down, make sure he was acting rationally. And if he had to
double-talk, that s what he would do. Unfortunately, Koresh saw
through his lies, such as when Jim continued harping on the fact that
the helicopters had no mounted guns , when it was fairly obvious that
there were men inside the helicopter firing on them with sub-machine
parents sent their children outside of Mount Carmel, where they were
delivered to a rendezvous point. A story appeared in many newspapers
claiming that three Dividians had tried to shoot their way through
ATF agents to safety. This was completely made up.
On March 1rst,
the ATF handed control to the FBI. The FBI proceeded to set itself up
were surrounded. FBI snipers were set up in two sandbag positions,
Sierra One, guarding the front end, and Sierra Two, hidden in back,
invisible to the cameras. Anyone trying to leave the compound would
be easily gunned down.
At one point
during the negotiations, it was believed that an end was in sight. On
March 2nd, Koresh had agreed to come out if a local radio station
would play the message he had recently made for the world. However,
after the message had been played, and David was approached to
fulfill his part of the deal, and come out of the compound, he
claimed he could not, that God had told him to stay, and not come out
As one FBI agent
was heard to remark The FBI wasn t prepared to share David Koresh s
contingent that we should wait on God to resolve. The FBI is God. It
s gonna decide how this is resolved. (Waco: Rules Of Engagement,
Shmireck was in charge of drawing up the physchological report on
Koresh, and advise a course of action. He advised for a calm,
cautious, non-confrontational method to be taken in regards to Koresh
and his followers. According to Schmireck, he was pressured by FBI
officials to change his assessments to co-align with a more
This was to
justify the FBI s next decision, to engage in psychological warfare.
They would do things like play tapes of rabbits being slaughtered,
chainsaws, and Nancy Sinatra singing. They would bring out lights at
night, and, in essence, were essentially trying to cause dangerous
amounts of sleep-deprivation, and take a man who they already viewed
as unstable, and push him over the brink! And then they would get mad
when he does something they think is irrational.
(Waco: Rules Of
At one point,
the Dividians hung a banner out of a window stating God help us, we
want the press! Reporters jokingly replied with the statement God
help us, we are the press!
FBI became plain-out immature after an entire month of doing next to
nothing. FBI agents mooned Dividians, flicked them the bird, and ran
over graves with tanks.
David Koresh s
grandmother came to talk to him, to try and get him to lay down his
arms and come out. This, of course, failed as well. As David s
grandmother left, one FBI official was heard to remark, I hope she
has told him goodbye,
On April 14th,
there was a major breakthrough in negotiations. In a letter to one of
the FBI s negotiators, Koresh wrote that he d received his mission,
that he was working on his translation of the seven seals, and that
everyone within the compound was relieved that the prophecies were
not coming true, and that they would not have to die. David would
come out when he had finished his writing.
(Waco: Rules Of
was dismissed as a stalling technique by Janet Reno, our Attorney
General. No good would come from waiting. It was decided that
negotiations were over, and now was the time for the FBI to mobilize
and take action.
Clinton described the FBI s plan as an operation prepared by the FBI
designed to increase pressure on Koresh and persuade those in the
compound to surrender peacefully. They would use tear gas that would
not cause permanent harm to health but would . . . force the people
within the compound to come out and surrender.
On April 19,
1993, the FBI had two specially equipped Abrams tanks and four
Bradley armored vehicles punch holes in the compound, literally
knocking out sections of wall, and spray CS gas into the compound,
while soldiers outside fired Ferret rounds of the gas into the
building. Ferret rounds are like miniature grenades fired from a
hand-held grenade launcher. Tear gas is released as the tip
disintegrates. Despite the claim that all this was done to minimize
causalities, Ferret rounds pack enough force to kill, and were aimed
at any window in which movement was spotted. It was announced over a
sound system that those within the compound should put on their
masks, and that although they were releasing tear gas into the
building, this was not an assault.
The gas used was
CS gas, which is not a common tear gas. More than one hundred
nations, including the US, have banned CS gas in warfare: but at Waco
it was used on women and children. (Hamm, pg. 108) In a video of boot
camp trainees being subjected to CS for only a few seconds, we can
see them, teary eyed, red, even throwing up and having trouble
breathing. The Dividians received ten times that dosage, for six
hours. In a 1975 U.S. Army publication, it stated that Generally,
persons reacting to CS are incapable of executing organized and
concerted actions and excessive exposure to CS may make them
incapable of vacating an area. So Clinton s explanation that it was
to be used to force the Dividians to come out and surrender was the
exact opposite of the truth.
CS isn t a gas,
it s a chemical powder. For use in Waco, it was dissolved in
Methylene Chloride, a volatile chemical used for stripping paint. It
created a fine aerosol mist when sprayed through the tanks nozzles or
released from a Ferret round. In closed spaces, this mixture can be
ignited by a spark into a fireball. When CS burns, it creates
hydrogen cyanide, the same gas used in prison gas chambers. Here it
was used on young infants and senior citizens. Sure, they gave
everyone in the building gas masks, but guess what? Gas masks do not
fit on babies!!!
The women and
children fled to the safest place within the church while the gassing
continued, the kitchen storage room. A reinforced concrete room, it
was a former vault. Because the children didn t have gas masks to fit
them, they were covering themselves with wet towels. A tank then
broke through the very center of the building and began releasing gas
right into the concrete room, a virtual cul de sac (French for bottom
of the bag ), with no ventilation, not acknowledging the lack of gas
masks being worn by a good percentage of its occupants. They were
most likely coughing, choking, and some probably were dead. Some were
most likely inert. They were still alive and breathing, but they
weren t going to be doing anything.
The tanks had
been breaching holes into the building, lots of holes. As Joseph
Perino, Former Chief of The Houston Fire Department put it, They had
just unintentionally setup the configuration of a potbelly stove. You
want it to burn slow, you close up the vents. You want it to burn
fast, you open them. The compound was going to burn fast. . . .even
without the CS gas, and the flammable liquids. . . it s going to burn
fast because of the venting. (Waco: Rules Of Engagement, SP01:55:49)
Less than a
minute after the final tank had finished it s final injection of CS
gas, the first of three separate fires, which started in three
different spots, within three minutes of each other began on the
second floor of the compound, in an area where the gas was still at
it s most volatile as a fine mist. David Thibodeau says he was in a
room on the outside of the main hall when he saw a fireball that ran
the front length of Mount Carmel, possibly causing a second fireball
to ignite, which set fire to the kitchen/dining room area. This was,
unfortunately, right next to the concrete room where the women and
children had been gassed earlier.
About a minute
later, another armored vehicle approached the gymnasium in the rear
of the church, then backed away. About half a minute later, Derek
Lovelock, the other survivor who saw a fireball, claims he saw one
streaking from the rear of the compound to the front, igniting
everything in its path.
At this point,
the back of the gym had been destroyed. Derek heard someone scream
that a fire had started above, and as he could not reach the
stairwell in the front, as the tank had come in there, he ran for the
stairwell in the back, thinking of the kids he d come to known and
loved. He reached the top of the stairs and made his way across a
catwalk that stretched above the church area. He got to a blanket,
and as he opened the blanket up, a wall of flames shot from the end
of the hall directly in front of him, to the other end, right in
front of his eyes. (Waco: Rules Of Engagement, SP01:58:00)
firefighters arrived, they were held back from helping fight the fire
so that there was no chance of them being hit by a stray bullet.
Dividians were located in the kitchen/dining room area. The area
surrounding them was engulfed in flames. There may have been a way
out, but something must have been blocking the path. The heat was so
extreme that the children s hands literally melted into those of
their mothers, and when the bodies were recovered, had become
The burning of
the gas created the cyanide mentioned earlier, which is used in
prison gas chambers. The effects of the gas can be seen in the corpse
of an eight year-old girl recovered from the fire, in which it
seriously looks as though she is bent backwards with her head turned
180 degrees! It makes the muscles contract so wildly, it can actually
break bones. When it is used on convicts in prisons, the convict is
strapped down extremely tightly. This is not to keep the convict from
escaping, but to keep the individuals witnessing the execution from
being forced to observe the horrifying effects of hydrogen cyanide
upon the human body.
This is a quote
from David Thibodeau, one of the only survivors of the inferno. It is
the story of his harrowing escape from the fate so many others were
forced to live, as he told Congress during the Joint Sub-Committee
There came a
point in my rolling on the floor, trying to protect myself from the
heat, in the pitch black, unable to see, that the voices of those
behind me screaming, kinda got through to me. . . I recognized who
they were, placed the voices. And I got to my feet and jumped, or
dived in the direction I thought the hole was, and when I stood up,
the skin was rolling off my hands, my coat was all melted on my back
and smoking, and as I looked back over my shoulder, the hole I had
just jumped through was covered in flames, and the first though that
came to me was
I m the only one
. (Waco: Rules Of Engagement, SP02:06:45)
As the tattered
Branch Dividian flag was fluttering to the ground, and the fires were
settling down, the ATF raised their flag high up on the flagpole,
replacing the one that now lay smoldering in the dirt.
One of the
survivors had managed to save something. It was a stack of papers,
titled THE DECODED MESSAGE OF THE SEVEN SEALS OF THE BOOK OF
REVELATION by David Koresh. The writing that David Koresh had
promised to give himself up non-violently after it s completion,
which Janet Reno, the Butcher of Waco, as she has come to be called
by some members of the press, had dismissed as a lie and a stalling
technique. It had truly existed. Reno was wrong.
lead to many debates, arguments, and controversies. One of the
earlier debates to raise it s ugly head was that of who fired the
first shot? , the ATF, or the Dividians. The ATF fiercely denied
having fired upon the Dividian s first, saying that there had been no
reason for them to want to. However, the Dividian s denied the
charges just as ferociously. In a 911 call placed by a Dividian
member by the name of Wayne Martin on Feb. 28, during the siege, he
screamed that they fired on us first, we re going to fight back! One
Dividian defense rested upon the fact that the majority of holes in
the metal front door were punched inward, showing that the shots had
come from the outside. However, that makes sense, as Dividians who
were behind those doors would not sensibly fire directly through
them, but would crack them open and fire through at the ATF agents
they could see. Thus, the point was moot.
Dividian defense was that, had the Dividians planned to ambush the
ATF, and the ATF approached the front door in unarmored cattle cars,
covered only by thin blue tarp, the Dividians would have opened fire
long before the ATF had time to take cover.
popular train of thought was that an ATF agent who shot a dog could
have been responsible for the firefight. If the agent who shot the
malamutes had shot them before the firefight had begun, the sound of
the gun going off could have lead either side to believe they were in
danger, and lead to the volley of bullets. This way, the ATF could
not be held fully responsible. However, in a semi-recently recovered
video of the raid, we can hear the dogs holler minutes after the
fight had begun, meaning that the dog s death could not be associated
with the first shot.
controversy over the ATF s plan falling through lead to the
examination of the ATF s warrant and plan.
thirds of the warrant concerned the lack of moral decency involved
with numerous reasons to suspect Koresh of statuary rape. However,
the ATF has no jurisdiction over such matters, so their being
included within the warrant downplays its legality. And, secondly,
the other part of the warrant dealt with the ATF s finding of gun
parts within the compound. However, it was the ATF s duty to prove
that those gun parts were owned with the intent to convert them into
illegal weapons. This duty was never carried out.
witnesses testified, it was put together in a prejudicial and
inflammatory manner. And it clearly misstates the US statute number
for the offense charge.
This would make
it appear that the ATF had thrown this plan together hastily. After
some research, it was found that the ATF was in a hurry to make a big
splash. At one time, David Koresh, upon learning he was being
investigated, invited the ATF, through his gun dealer, to come to his
church and inspect it themselves. This offer was never followed, nor
did the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms even try to pursue
it, which would suggest the ATF wanted to conduct a raid, not make an
arrest or conduct a search. (Waco: Rules Of Engagement, SP00:42:00)
Also, a public relations worker for the Bureau called a reporter the
day before the raid in order to let him know that something big was
going to be going down in Waco, Texas tomorrow. But why did they need
The answer is
this: With the Ruby Ridge hearings a week away, a large successful
raid would produce numerous positive headlines which would help
counter the ATF s reputation as a rogue agency whose debacles
blackened the reputation of other agencies. It would also bring them
into favor with the new, young, strongly anti-gun president, Bill
Clinton, and scare Congress enough about fringe groups to convince
them to increase the ATF s meager and non-substantial budget.
conversation moved on to the truth on what really happened on April
19, the day of the gassing and the fire. And of course, the first
thing the conversation came to was what started the fire? As
mentioned above, the house had been turned into a giant potbelly
stove. Oxygen was being provided to the fire via the thirty-one-mph
winds that were blowing through Mount Caramel s building of salvaged
wood, soaked in Methalyne Chloride, which made the structure
extremely volatile. The FBI came to embrace the story that the
Dividian s had started the fire themselves. The survivors who had
exited the building smelled of diesel fuel, gasoline, and lighter
fluid, and tests proved that traces of all were within the fibers of
their clothing. However, key information was left out, mainly that of
how the survivors had to walk through an area that was largely
contaminated with spilled tank fuel, which would explain all of that.
The government did admit to, however, throwing in flashbangs during
the gassing, which very easily could have set off the fire.
The next flaw in
the government story came after the autopsy reports were completed.
After a non-jurisdictional autopsy on the bodies at Waco was
completed, it was the coroner s opinion that the majority of the
bodies were victims of homicide. The FBI claimed that at no point did
they fire automatic weapons at the Dividians, nor deliberately try to
mortally wound anyone. Yet firefighters were kept away from the
compound to protect them from gunfire and a large portion of the
victims had gun wounds. Could these all have been self-inflicted? Not
likely, due to other evidence.
portion of the gym had been utterly demolished by the tanks. All five
of the bodies found within had extensive body mutilation.
Henry had a gun shot wound through his chest. Jim Riddle had been
shot as well, but a large circular portion had been ripped out of the
right side of his chest. Riddle s red shirt was dangling from his
wrist, and his nearby coat had a red lining. About ten minutes after
some gun-fire is believed to have been seen nearby the gym, something
got caught in one of the tank s left wheel, causing the tread to come
off. That something was mostly red. It is believed to have been Jim
Riddle s body.
In order to look
into the suspected gun-fire, the Judicial Committee had a look at the
FLIR(Forward-Looking-Infra-Red) tapes taken by government planes
overhead. What they found was, to say the least, shocking.
differently than, say, ordinary film. Despite the fact that when
viewed it does resemble a black and white film, it photographs heat,
instead of light. Fire would show up as bright white on the film, and
it is believed gun shots should easily produce the heat needed to
register on the film. They appear to register as small, sharp bursts,
and will appear in succession when fired rapidly, such as when the
trigger is depressed and the gun on full automatic. Unfortunately,
there are many spots on this video where we can see these gunshots.
The shot that may have killed Jim Riddle is shown on these tapes.
As a tank is
knocking down the western wall of the gym, there was gunfire visible
to the rear of the tank, being fired inward, into the building, from
two different positions, with automatic weapons. There is nothing in
nature which could duplicate these thermal signals.
There was also
evidence of fire in the courtyard nearby the dining room area, firing
in the direction of the dining room/kitchen area, where the women and
children were taking shelter from the gas, once again from two
were verified by the FLIR experts at The Introspection Institute.
They agree that it is obviously gunfire seen on the tape on several
occasions, coming from automatic weapons, fired into the building.
Unfortunately, due to the sensitive nature of the material, and fear
of repercussion, Intraspection declined to make any further comments.
(Waco: The Rules Of Engagement, SP01:47:47) However, they did also
mention that there were incidents on the tape in which it appeared
people were entering, exiting, or being run over by an armored
And possibly the
worst thing that was found on the FLIR tape came after the fire had
begun. For, even though it is hard to make out due to the fire,
automatic weapon fire can be identified directly outside the only
exit from the concrete room in the kitchen/dining room area. That was
the something that had kept those people inside the burning building.
They were forced back into the flames by machine gun fire as they
tried to escape from the building.
Let me be clear,
investigation has not uncovered any evidence of political corruption,
we have not
found any of that.
There was no
conspiracy to kill Branch Dividians.
The record of
the Waco incident documents mistakes,
but the record
from Waco does not evidence, however,
motive or intent on the part of law enforcement.
David Koresh and
the Dividians set fire to themselves.
... of office work need apply forthe position. 2 С event, activity, which has ... the underlined part at the end ofthe sentence. Sometimes you need "to." E.g. Tim lent ... ; 2 name ofthe street; 3 Charly's Cafe; 4 end ofthe street; 5 name ofthe assistant; 6 ...
... the caravan, which is part ofthe fascination of our haunting story. One is struck, for ... again. Then land fever swept Illinois and kindled the urge to move ... hides, charred bones, twigs, bark, leaves. On December 15th one ofthe Reeds ...
... says, “I even think now that thelandofthe entire country was hostile to ... dead mothers. I’ve seen them charred, lame, halt. You forgot, Lord ... , which sets the tone forthe novel’s hovering doom, is both example and symbol ofthe ...
... ; it asserts ownership over theland. While the English Patient hates nationalism, ... ofthe old and the new. This is the same forthe period of time during whichthe ... The burned body ofthe English Patient is of great importance to the novel. Thecharred ...
... employs a go between, which is responsible for delivering a token ofthe boys’ interest. If ... ofland are enough to supply the owner with a sufficient amount of vegetable food. The ... their base, and axing off thecharred parts after each subsequent fire ...