по английской грамматике: В помощь
учителю иностранного языка. — 2-е изд.,
испр. — М.: Флинта: Наука, 2000. — 88 с.
книге предлагается материал по некоторым
малоосвещенным разделам английской
грамматики с соответствующей системой
упражнений (снабженной ключами) для
глубокого проникновения в суть описанных
явлений и прочного их усвоения.
учителей средней и высшей школы, а также
для самостоятельной работы
совершенствующихся в английском языке.
book is intended for school EFL teachers. It gives clear explanations
and useful practice of English grammar. Some of those grammatical
pieces are included which are not always easy to find on the pages of
grammar books. Very often teachers and then their students receive
one and the same portion of grammatical information year in, year out
and get an idea of the English language being too elementary to
express a great variety of meanings. The purpose of the book is to
bring to the attention of the reader certain allegedly simple
grammatical topics, disclose their actual essence and show their
place in communication. The grammatical items are presented not in
their pure way, but are correlated with other linguistic notions. For
example, number of nouns concerns the problem of conversion and
agreement between the subject and the predicate. Comparison with the
Russian language is made where necessary. The book is not a reference
book, it includes the information which deserves a teacher's
attention in the opinion of the author.
selection of exercises from English teaching courses will provide the
EFL teachers with various activities (mostly of a communicative
character) to practise the described grammatical material. The given
assignments help create the conditions in which the knowledge of a
foreign language becomes a must and the only way of self-expression.
They will help learners not only form correct sentences but also use
them correctly in context. They are aimed at teaching students of
different levels of knowledge and admit of replacement of a more
difficult vocabulary for an easier one.
material composed by native speakers was chosen because it presents
pieces of real English culture, traditions and way of life and
because it excludes errors so common in the books written by
non-native speakers. The description of the similar conditions,
circumstances of life in our country can be practised as a follow-up.
INTRODUCTION. PARTS OF SPEECH
Man is not well
defined as homo sapiens ("man with wisdom"). For what do we
mean by wisdom? More recently anthropologists have talked about "man
the tool-maker," but apes can make primitive tools. What sets
man apart from the rest of the animal kingdom is his ability to
speak; he is "man the speaking animal" — homo loquens.
But it is grammar that makes language so essentially a human
characteristic. For though other creatures can make meaningful
sounds, the link between sound and meaning is for them of a far more
primitive kind than it is for man, and the link for man is grammar.
Man is not merely homo loquens; he is homo grammaticus.
Frank Palmer. Grammar.
idea of the book is to bring to the attention of EFL teachers those
areas of English Grammar which lie fallow and yield very poor
results, if any, because the teachers in their strivings to get more
in a very short while lose hold of extremely important things. The
teachers imply that the learners are supposedly aware of quite a lot
of linguistic knowledge if they are adults or are at the age of, say,
ten (and they really are if we think in terms of their native
language); or, on the contrary, they are too young to be given
information which the previous education and upbringing have not yet
put at their disposal. So, we leave our students (who happened to be
less educated in a foreign language or are privileged to be younger,
than we are) unequipped with the foundations of the language
your students what grammar (the word is repeated by them quite often)
is and they will be surprised to hear this kind of question from you
and most unexpected answers will be given you. 1 mean to say the
following: try to find some time to discuss basic frequently used
notions so that their meanings will become wholly understandable to
your students, and they will cease saying them in a parrot-like
way.After deciphering them the students will get an additional
background and impetus in their linguistic education. They will
become proud of themselves for being more educated. Sometimes we
underestimate our students' abilities: teenagers as well as adult
learners have acquired a lot about the Russian language system. Help
them display their knowledge, make it work, be effective in the
acquisition of another language. Your linguistic considerations will
teach your students to generalize, to stop to think, to philosophize.
By learning to do so with a foreign language they will transfer their
abilities onto the native language and other subjects, and further
on, to their everyday life. Just think of how much diversified their
insight into life and how much deeper their understanding of the word
system will be!
may contradict me by saying that the learners will not need this
philosophizing and can do without it. That's not true. Learning a
foreign language is a lasting effort which requires a lot of time and
work. For instance, some practical manuals may seem discouraging to
the learner, since the explanations can contain not the
well-accustomed formulations but unusual wording unheard of before. A
successful foreign language speaker is an indefatigable labourer, a
great user of books, a constant improver of his/her speech habits, a
wise decipherer of all new information, an ingenious reader keenly
reacting to any nicety of thought expression.
attempt to highlight several linguistic notions has been made, ways
how to teach them have been sought.
is grammar? Grammar is part of linguistics (the learning about a
language) which studies changes of words (in other words, forms of
words) and the connection of words into word combinations and
sentences. Hence, grammar consists of morphology and syntax.
a result of such a study we receive a collection of rules since rules
are practical directions given to people by previous generations. The
rules are about how to form the plural number of nouns and verbs, the
past tense of verbs, the degrees of comparison of adjectives, etc.
The rules reflect the actual processes that a language undergoes.
Rules are secondary, while language behaviour is primary. That is why
it is incorrect to define grammar as a set of rules. Grammar is
self-contained, abstract and independent. Certainly, grammar reflects
processes developing in human society, there would be no grammar
without language bearers, people, but it alienates itself, becomes a
kind of philosophy granted to people, so a set of rules is nothing
but a bridge between philosophical matter (as grammar is) and a human
is wrong to say that physics is a set of rules of how to use
electricity, for example, nor is it correct to say that chemistry
studies how to make use of chemical elements. In the same way,
grammar is not a set of rules, but a study of language processes to
create a verbal thought.
is a high degree of abstraction, a subconscious mechanism which is
stuck in the native speaker's mind as a kind of reflection of what
they have seen and heard since infancy.
similar foreign language mechanism can develop in you in the same
subconscious way if you live among the people speaking the language
you want to learn. If not, you have to develop that mechanism
purposefully, making one step after another, understanding that this
is a mechanism unlike the one you have already developed in your
mind, which still has coincidences and discrepancies and which should
become the core of your foreign language speaking abilities. That is
why it is almost impossible to overestimate the role of grammar as an
impetus in your understanding language. No time devoted to teaching
what grammar is and teaching grammar itself is considered wasted. But
teaching grammar is a sophisticated process, it shouldn't overload
the students' mind and should be skilfully incorporated in all areas
of knowledge and rationed in proportion to speaking, listening,
writing and reading.
like any other part of linguistics (phonetics, lexicology, spelling,
punctuation, etc.) deals with words. All words in a language are
subdivided for convenience into groups called parts of speech.
grammatical features such as number, case, tense, mood, etc. and
interaction between words of different parts of speech, the notion of
a part of speech includes some lexical features: meaning,
word-building elements, and some phonetical ones. That is why, parts
of speech subdivision is valid not only for grammar; it is referred
to in phonetics, lexicology, etc.
part of speech is a group of words united together by the common
lexical meaning (thingness, action, property, characteristic of an
action, property or another characteristic; connection, relation,
definiteness/indeflniteness, emphasis, human emotions, human
attitude, affirmation/negation); by the common changes of words to
express number, case, degrees of comparison, tense, person, mood,
etc.; by the common ways of connection with words of other parts of
speech; by the common functions in a sentence (subject, predicate,
predicative, object, attribute, adverbial modifier), by the common
word-building elements (suffixes, word structure).
a group of words have the common lexical meaning of thingness (in a
wide sense of the word); have the forms player — players, player —
player's, players — players'; are connected with adjectives, verbs,
articles, prepositions, and can
be subject, object, predicative, attribute and adverbial modifier in
a sentence, they are united together under the name of nouns (N for
the words have the common lexical meaning of action (in a wide sense
of the word), have the forms play — plays, play — played — will
play, plays — is playing, plays — is played, play — have
played, etc.; are connected with nouns, adjectives and adverbs; can
be predicate in a sentence, they are united together under the name
of verbs (V for short).
the words have the common lexical meaning of property, have the forms
kind — kinder — kindest; are connected with nouns, adverbs,
verbs; and can be attribute or predicative in a sentence, they are
united together under the name of adjectives (A for short).
the words have the common lexical meaning of characteristic of a
property or of an action, if they are unchangeable in form or can
have the forms fast — faster — fastest; if they are connected
with adjectives and verbs and can perform the function of adverbial
modifier in a sentence, they are united under the name of adverbs
(Adv for short).
study of the language resulted in naming certain parts of speech,
they are presented in the following chart.
symbolic presentation of parts of speech will make the process of
teaching and learning the language more economizing and more
enjoyable. It will also make the process of learners' looking up
words in the dictionary easier. The symbols will allow students to
take quick notes. Symbols are part of linguistic literature and
knowing them will pave the way to understanding further reading on
parts of speech picture should necessarily be compared with what
exists in the Russian language.
comparison of the English and Russian parts of speech systems shows
that they are identical with one substantial difference: there's the
article in the English language, and no articles are to be found in
the Russian language. As to modal words, they can be treated as a
group of adverbs (some linguists do so), the words Yes and No are
only two in number and may be moved to Interjections.
notional parts of speech have been attended to so far. Now we'll
mention most important features of formal words and those words which
are neither notional nor formal.
words are subdivided into connecting and determining. The connecting
formal words are prepositions (prep) and conjunctions (conj).
Prepositions show the relation of the noun to words of other parts of
speech in a sentence. They are unchangeable words connecting the
noun, the pronoun, the gerund, infinitival and gerundial phrases,
noun-clauses with the noun, adjective and the verb in a sentence.
Being formal words they do not perform any function in a sentence.
(conj) have the meaning of connection, they are unchangeable and
connect words of the same parts of speech: N conj N, A conj A, V conj
V, Adv conj Adv, N/Pron conj N/Pron, etc. No syntactical function is
performed by them.
determining formal words are articles (art) and particles (part).
They have a peculiar meaning and are unchangeable. They determine
notional parts of speech: the article determines nouns (art + N) and
particles determine any notional part of speech for emphasis, e.g.
Only he did so. He did
only this. He only
listened but did nothing. They do not perform the functions of
subject, predicate, object, etc. in a sentence, they emphasize the
meaning of the word they modify.
(int) express human emotions, they are unchangeable, they make a
sentence in themselves, e.g. Oh,
how happy I feel, and are often homonymous with notional words, e.g.
here you are at last.
Words Yes and No
express affirmation and negation; they are unchangeable and make a
sentence in themselves.
words express the attitude of the speaker to what is said and are
used as parentheses. E.g. Luckily,
no one suffered from it. Honestly,
you are making the most of it.
Here is a poem written by someone
unknown about the parts of speech in English.
Grammar in Rhyme
Three little words you often see,
Are Articles A, An and The.
A Noun is the name of anything,
As School, or Garden, Hoop, or Swing.
Adjectives tell the kind of Noun,
As Great, Small, Pretty, White, or Brown.
Instead of Adjectives the Pronouns stand,
Her head, His face, Your arm, My hand.
Verbs tell of something being done —
To Read, Count, Laugh, Sing, Jump, or Run.
How things are done the Adverbs tell,
As Slowly, Quickly, Ill,
Conjunctions join the words together —
As men And women, wind And weather.
The Preposition stands before
A Noun, as In or Through a door.
The Interjection shows surprise,
As Oh! How Pretty! Ah! How Wise!
The whole are called nine parts of speech
Which reading, writing, speaking teach.
parts of speech are mentioned in the poem against thirteen indicated
in the chart. Among notional parts of speech numerals are not
mentioned in the poem since they may be regarded in the group of
adjectives due to the similarities of their characteristics and are
often treated as such. Particles are easily comparable with adverbs,
the same refers to modal words; words of affirmation and negation can
with a certain degree of proximity be considered to be referring to
the group of interjections. So, nine parts of speech is good enough
for teaching purposes.
chart like the one presented above would orientate the learners about
the section of grammar they are in every time a grammar point is
being taught facilitating them to overlook the complete picture of
information about parts of speech may be helpful in teaching how to
use an English-English, English-Russian, Russian-English
dictionaries. It is taken for granted that students should make use
of dictionaries and do make use of them successfully. That is why
very little attention is given by EFL teachers to teaching the
procedure of rinding a word in a dictionary. It is worthwhile
remembering that the dictionary does not only name the word but also
bears the information about what part of speech it is and, depending
on it, some more data about the word in question.
is one other poem, this time about a dictionary.
William Jay Smith
Dictionary's where you can look things up
see if they're really there:
see if what you breathe is Air,
what you sit on is a Chair,
what you comb is curly Hair,
what you drink from is a Cup.
where you can look things up
see if they're really there.
Let us try to see how much information
the verb "to explain" as a dictionary entry contains (the
information comes from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of
Current English by A.S.Hornby).
vtl VP6A, 9, 8, 10, 14
2 VP6A, 15B
The symbols are deciphered in the
dictionary as follows:
S + vt n/pr A dictionary tries to ~ the meanings of words.
... . Однако и по отношению к лексике, и особенно по отношению к грамматике речь идет не ... -техническому стилю, чем английскому. В английских научно-технических материалах нередко ... , а также обратиться за помощью (консультацией) к специалисту. Вместе с тем, ...
... relations) можно перевести с английского как «связи с общественностью» или ... Консультативно-методическая функция предполагает консультациипо организации и налаживанию отношений ... комплексом, видео и фотоаппаратурой; грамматику и стилистику русского языка, ...
... . Наиболее употребляемые английские пословицы и поговорки. Грамматикаанглийского языка в пословицах ... Когнитивная семантика: Курс лекций поанглийской филологии. Тамбов, 2000. ... а в виде устных индивидуальных консультаций, либо с помощью электронной почты ...
... индивидуальные беседы с учащимися и консультации; использование интересных и творческих ... , разноплановые. Основные связаны с грамматикой (6 чел.), переводом (2 чел ... петь песни и читать стихи по-английски Г – общаться по-английски Д – разгадывать лексические ...