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  1. Предмет та статус теорії перекладу. Роль-перекладу у розвитку світової культури та зміцненні міжнародних зв'язків.

Translation is a means of interlingual communication. The translator makes possible an exchange of information between the users of different languages by producing in the target language (TL or the translating language) a text which has an identical communicative value with the source (or original) text (ST). This target text (TT, that is the translation) is not fully identical with ST as to its form or content due to the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the source language (SL) and TL.

The structure of the translation should follow that of the original text: there should be no change in the sequence of narration or in the arrangement of the segments of the text.

The aim is maximum parallelism of structure which would make it possible to relate each segment of the translation to the respective part of the original. Of major importance is the semantic identification of the translation with ST. It is presumed that the translation has the same meaning as the original text. The translator usually tries to produce in TL the closest possible equivalent to ST.

The theory of translation provides the translator with the appropriate tools of analysis and synthesis, makes him aware of what he is to look for in the original text, what type of information he must convey in TT and how he should act to achieve his goal.

Strengthening of internat.relations (Ukraine)

lexical meanings

is the general concept corresponding to a word or a combi-nation of words

connotation

is an additional, contrastive value of the basic usually designative function of the lexical meaning

association

is a more or less regular connection established between the given and other mental concepts in the minds of the language speakers.

grammatical meaning

The gaining of independence by Ukraine in 1991 awoke an unknown before increase in the employment of both oral and written translation, which became needed for the establishment of international relations with the rest of the world. These two types of translation provided a newly independent country in its first years with the mass of the official international texts of diplomatic and legal nature (treaties, agreements). Due to the active employment of written translation Ukraine could successfully establish and maintain its international relations with outside world.

The only functioning organ except some private publishing houses, which continued to publish the works of foreign literatures in Ukrainian translation remained the Vsesvit journal. The Ukrainian reader has received mostly high quality artistic of works by many foreign classics and mostly prominent contemporary poets, whose works have never been published in Ukrainian before.

Among the translators, who have greatly contributed to the recognition of foreign literature were: M.Pinchevskiy, M.Mitrofanov, M.Lytvinets and others.

2.Загально-лінгвістичні аспекти перекладу. Мова і реальний світ. Система мови. Співвідношення систем різних мов

The relation of language to the extralinguistic world involves 3 basic sets of elements:

  1. language signs (sequence of sounds or symbols which is associated with a single concept in the minds of speakers of that or another language. .signs are a kind of construction elements of which a language is built);

mental concepts (array of mental images and associations related to a particular part of the extralinguistic world, on the one hand, and connected with a particular language sign, on the other);

  1. denotatum – parts of the extra linguistic world which not necessarily material or physically really existing..

The system of language is some order organizing hundreds of thousands of words making it easier to memorize and properly use them in speech. In any language system two general planes are usually distinguished: the formal plane, comprising spoken or written language sign and the semantic, comprising mental concepts the language signs stand for (words from a dictionary- formal plane, its definitions- semantic plane).

A language system is traditionally divided into three basic levels:

1.morphological (including morphs and morphemes objects),

2. lexical (including words and objects),

3. syntactic (including such elements as Subject, Predicate).

At each language level its objects may be grouped according to their meaning or function. Such groups are called paradigms. (spring, summer, winter, autumn – lexico-semantic paradigm of seasons). elements of language paradigms are united and organized according to their potential roles in speech formation. These roles are called valences (здатність слів сполучатися з іншими словами). The paradigms brought together form the system of the language.

Language paradigms are virtual elements of the lang. which are activated in syntactically interdependent groups of sentence elements called syntagma. A syntagma is a pair of words connected by the master-servant relationship.

  • paradigms which are activated into independent groups of sentence elements.

In different languages set elements and syntagmas are often different.

The list of definite differences between Russian and English language systems.

Russian

English

1. Russian is a flective synthetic language.

1. English is analytical language, complex grammar relations are constructed by a group of words.

2.

2. Structures with definite subject, predicate relations.

3. English is verb-sentence language.

4. Negative structures in Russian negation.

4. Affirmative constructions.

5. Russian is longer, is full of extensions.

5. Short words, short sentences.

6. Russian prefers abstract lexical generalizations.

6. English in general is more definite.

7.

7. English is indirect.

8. Word order is loosed.

8. Word order is fixed.

9. The focus is at the end of the sentence,

9. The focus I at the beginning (subject – predicate – object).

10. The styles are less opposed.



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