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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF KAZAKHSTAN
DEPARTMENT OF “FINANCE”
COURSE WORK ON “ BANKING ”
Team: “Foreign banks on the financial market of Kazakhstan”
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TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER 1. HISTORY OF BANKING SYSTEM OF KAZAKHSTAN 5-10
CHAPTER 2. ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN BANK IN THE FINANCIAL MARKET OF KAZAKHSTAN (on the example of ATF bank) 11-16
CHAPTER 3. PROSPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING SYSTEM OF KAZAKHSTAN 17-22
The banking system - one of the most important structure in the market economy. The banks conduct with cash transactions, lending to agriculture, acted as mediator in the redistribution of capital, significantly increase the overall efficiency of production, promotes the growth of productivity of labor.
Commercial banks of Kazakhstan are the single fastest developing a system. Banks' activities aimed at supporting the commercial interests of enterprises, to promote the introduction of new forms of management. Commercial banks - is an important area of national economy of any developed or developing country. Its practical role is operates in the state system of payments and settlements, most of their commercial transactions carried out through contributions, investment and lending operations, along with other financial intermediaries to direct the savings banks to firms and industrial structures. Commercial banks regulate the movement of cash flows, affecting the rate of turnover, emissions, total weight, including the amount of cash in circulation. In modern society, commercial banks are engaged in a wide variety of types of operations. They not only organize cash flow and credit relations, which are being financed through the national economy, insurance operations, buying and selling securities, and in some cases, brokerage and property management. Lending institutions act as consultants, participate in discussion of economic programs, keep statistics, have their own similar business.
Banks that are partly or wholly owned by foreign capital. Activities of foreign banks in the country are regulated by national legislation, which establishes a special regime for foreign banks to limit or enhance them, depending on the state of the economy and the direction of government policy.
Sufficiently prominent place in Kazakhstan's economy is played by foreign banks. Foreign banks are one of the largest banking entities in the country. This is due to overseas expansion of the companies are major customers of banks, with the unfolded process of deregulation and liberalization. The growing number of foreign banks depends on many factors such as: mode admittance of foreign banks and the regulation of their operations, the role of foreign trade and foreign direct investment in the economy, the presence of the country's international financial centers, including centers of operations with the euro, which determine the possibility of international expansion: the level of development of the national market, including credit and financial prospects, and expand local operations, the level of taxation of the quality and efficiency of the technological infrastructure. The main foreign partners and non-resident banks are the U.S., Saudi Arabia, Turkey, China, Netherlands, Liechtenstein, the Kingdom of Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Russia. Kazakhstan is assessed as highly attractive for foreign investment the country continued the process of attracting foreign capital in a bank. The activities of existing foreign banks is characterized by stability and balance. Activities of commercial banks contribute to stabilizing the financial situation in the country, raising production and development of fair competition.
Foreign banks are oriented primarily to their corporate customers, although individuals are interested in them too. For foreign banks is not so relevant small deposits, they needed wealthy clients, but private accounts they also open. Moreover, foreign banks have lower interest rates than domestic financial institutions: this means that at their expense to save inputs from inflation citizens of Kazakhstan do not succeed, but still on the banking crisis it will protect them.
In general, foreign banks associated with stability in the financial system. This is not surprising, because even if Kazakhstan once again break out the crisis, foreign banks have a guarantee of support from parent institutions. However, experts recommend that individuals do not rely too much on the power of foreign banks and, despite the perfect service and a lot of tempting offers, always check what might be lurking behind them, and how it will affect their personal financial well being of each client's foreign financial subsidiaries.
The main goal of course work is to understand influence and important of foreign banks in the financial market of Kazakhstan. The main goals of this course work :
- To analyze history of development of banking system on the territory of Kazakhstan;
- Analyze the activity of ATF Bank, as a foreign bank, the types and profitability of financial services in the bank;
- Identify the problems and perspectives of development of banking system of Kazakhstan;
Subject of course work is banking system and foreign banks on the financial market of RK. Object of study is ATF Bank.
Methodological and practical base for writing of course work is textbooks, academic economists, articles, financial reports of ATF Bank.
CHAPTER 1 . HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING SYSTEM OF KAZAKHSTAN
Banking system of Kazakhstan appears after taking of sovereignty of country in December 1991. In January 1993 was done first law “on banks and bank activity in Kazakh SSR” , that was the first step in banking system of country. As in the Soviet era, the national bank continues to dominate the financial system, including currency management. Other commercial institutions have been established, but they play small roles in the country's financial life.
Since 1993, the Kazakh banking system has been formally arranged into two tiers, with the National Bank of Kazakhstan comprising the first tier and all commercial banks, both private and state-owned, comprising the second tier.
NBK acts as a regulator of monetary and credit policy. NBK is accountable directly to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The National Bank of Kazakhstan is an independent financial institution. Its major objectives include control and prudential regulation of the banking sector and maintenance of a stable national currency. It is independent within the scope of its activity, identified by current legislation. Neither the Government, nor the Parliament or local authorities are authorized to interfere with the National Bank's operations. The National Bank coordinates its activities with the Cabinet of Ministers. It acts as a bank, a financial adviser, or an agent of the governmental bodies. The management bodies of the National Bank are the Council and the Board of Directors. The Kazakhstan banking system continues to be one of the strongest among the countries of the former Soviet Union.
Commercial banks concern a special category of the business enterprises which have received the name of financial intermediaries. They involve capitals, savings of the population and other free money resources liberated in the course of economic activities, and give them in time using to other economic agents who need the additional capital. Financial intermediaries carry out, thus, important economic function, providing a society the mechanism of inter branch and inter-regional redistribution of the monetary capital. Value of commercial banks in modern credit systems is so great that is necessary to stop especially on functions of these institutes. It designates "business" character of bank, it oriented on service of all kinds of economic agents irrespective of a sort of their activity. Today the commercial bank is capable to offer the client to 200 kinds of various bank products and services. The wide diversification of operations allows banks to keep clients and to remain profitable even at rather adverse economic conjuncture. Not casually in all countries with market economy they remain the main operational link of credit system. There is certain base "set" without which the bank can't normally function. Such constituting operations of bank concern:
· reception of deposits;
· realization of monetary payments and calculations;
· delivery of credits.
During the period of 1991-1993 Kazakhstan, as well as other CIS countries experienced the banking boom. In 1992, the number of banks grew from 155 to 204. Many of these structures were created for just one type of transactions. As specially popular scheme was the attraction of state loans of several millions dollars with the initial malicious plan to go bankrupt.
Up to November 1993 Kazakhstan continued to use the Soviet ruble as currency. President of Kazakhstan intended to keep uniform currency with Russia. However Russia, having started replacement of the Soviet banknotes on new Russian, has ceased to provide with them Kazakhstan. In October 1993 president has agreed to put under control of Russia such major economic institutes, as the budget, the customs duties, taxes and the investment policy, in exchange for preservation of a ruble zone in Kazakhstan. However the Russian government has demanded, that Kazakhstan has transferred Russia and country gold reserves. Government has refused this offer, and Kazakhstan has entered own currency - tenge. The national currency, tenge, was introduced in November 1993. The National Bank itself took the helm of the country's monetary and credit systems. Its first action was strengthening requirements for the second-tier banks. In 1993 the National Bank withdrew first 15 banking licenses for non-compliance to these requirements. At the same time economic sanctions on possible defaults were introduced, as well as the requirement for the minimum charter capital. It should be noted that it took some time for banks to get accustomed to the new rules. During 1993 only 10% of the total number of banks met the new requirements. During the following years, the number of second-tier banks in Kazakhstan gradually decreased. Capitalization and liquidity requirements were also increased. Finally, all these measures had to ensure both the safety of deposits in Kazakhstan banks and the reliability of transactions and other banking operations.
In June 1994 Kazakstan instituted a fifteen-month program of financial and economic reform, tightening banking and credit laws, liberalizing price policies, and ending the granting of credits to state-owned institutions. In 1994 the national bank system included a State Export and Import Bank and a State Bank for Development, both of which functioned under full government control rather than as market institutions. Four large, state-owned banks controlled 80 percent of financial assets. The 200 small commercial bank’s operations in 1994,were attached to enterprises. About thirty private banks were licensed to deal in foreign exchange.
Another short-term reform was introduced in March 1995, in part to tighten regulation of capital requirements and to increase the professionalism of the existing bank's operations. A system of partnership with foreign banks was introduced, pairing domestic banks with experienced foreign partners. Guidance for this bank reform is being provided by the IMF, as well as by international auditing firms such as Ernst and Young and Price Waterhouse. The aim of the 1995 reform was to create a republic-wide banking system, including ten to fifteen large banks with total capital of at least US$10 million, headquartered in Almaty and with branches throughout Kazakstan. In 1995 the NBK planned to release 80 percent of the credit funds it granted to an auction market, departing from the previous policy of rationing credit by directing it to designated enterprises. No stock exchange or capital markets existed as of 1995. In 1995 National bank of Kazakhstan terminate introduction and use of whole set of instruments of money-credit and exchange regulation. It determined to act legislation to account the correct using the economic incentives and improvements of the normative regulation and reinforcements of the checking to realize the qualitative improvement activity of all commercial banks with increasing level of their capitalization and shaping the group of banks, approaching to international standard by developments and deepening of interbank money, credit and exchange. Reached the qualitative new level of the operation named intermediate payment system in a part of safety, timeliness and efficiency of the realization of the payments between managing subject and unfold making the long-term national payment system. In 1995 NBK has provided the broad development a market government. Concept of control of gold reserve is approved in April 1995 ruled by NBK. In purpose of the increase of gold reserve NBK conducted such operations, as accommodation of currency in deposits and precious metals, buying and sale of currency and precious metals. The operations were conducted with government bonds in the different countries. In 1995 continued to consolidate interaction of National bank and Ministry of finance in deal of macroeconomic stabilization and coordination of money-credit and tax-budget policies in purpose of recovery of the economy of the country.
In 1995 have occurred the essential changes of system of the banks second level. Lasted the process of liquidation or merger of the banks. This promoted the reinforcement of the requirements on the part of NBK in capitalization and liquidity of the second level of banks. As a result amount of the banks for year grew shorter with 191 before 130. Greatly changed and their structure. There was created interstate bank and joint of the banks. 
In 1995 was beginning of development of market of precious metal. The edict of the President of the Republic Kazakhstan, having power of the Law "About government regulations of the relations, in accordance with precious metal and jewels" from July 20 1995 was allowed to free sale of all produced in country precious metals. Kazakhstan first from all republics former USSR has undertaken the steps on liberalization of market of precious metals. Seven banks have got the temporary license of undertaking operation. In purpose of the undertaking united politicians at building of the efficient payment system, answered to the international standard, founding on identical legislation and modern technical basis.
In 1995 was concluded an agreement "About cooperation in the field of buildings of the National payment system of the Republic Kazakhstan and making the National Payment Advice ". The Main trends to activity was participation in development of the project of the National payment system, answered to many-sided interest of its participant, development methodical recommendation, directed on stabilization of the functioning of the second level banks and improvement quality of service client, transition on united interstate standards with output on international bank systems, decision of the different problems, in accordance with safety of the system, technical and software, service and education specialist banks-participant of the National payment system.
For increasing of efficiency of the use in Republic Kazakhstan payment instrument in 1995 were prepared and approved by rule of the Federal reserve bank following normative documents: "Temporary position about bill system payment in Republic Kazakhstan", "Temporary position about bank service agency", "Temporary order payment in foreign exchange with use debit and credit cards on territory of the Republic Kazakhstan". Also work was conducted on introduction earlier confirmed normative acts: "Position about payment by checks in Republic Kazakhstan", "Position about clearing chamber of the Federal reserve bank of the Republic Kazakhstan for undertaking the clearing of the checks", "Position about interbank’s clearing in Republic Kazakhstan", "Position about undertaking operation on issue or return the on-call loans on organized market". The Provided Program of the measure on legal ensuring the reform and operating the bank system were practically completely executed. At last issued the law "About Federal reserve banks of Republic Kazakhstan" and law "About banks and bank activity in Republic Kazakhstan".
The new decree "On banks and banking activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan" has significant differences from the old Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan . It defines that the second tier banks are: the state, deposit, investment banks with foreign participation and inter-state banks, all banks, except State, created only in the form of joint stock companies; allowed to form unions of banks. Also quality of work of commercial banks provided new types of banking operations - clearing, Lombard, issuance of payment cards and others, has laid down certain requirements for employees holding leadership positions in the bank.
In 1998 National bank of RK accepted decisions "About questions of transition of banks of the second level to the international standards" according to which 30 banks of the second level should reach the international standards till the end of 2000.
According to the Decree of the President of the Republic Kazakhstan, valid The law, "About banks and bank activity in Republic Kazakhstan" on National bank function of licensing of bank audit is assigned. The NBK develops the standard document on licensing of banking audit in which high requirements will be established and responsibility of bank auditors is defined.
In the beginning of 2000 year, 16 banks of a steel and participants of system of collective insurance of fixed deposits of physical persons. Active attraction of savings of the population in banks has led finally to growth of volumes of active operations spent by banks, increase of their competitiveness, decrease in the cost price of bank services and finally their availability to republic various strata of society.
At the start of 2001, there were 48 banks, down from 71 at the end of 1998 and from over 200 at the peak in 1993. The 11 banks included in the first group were required to reach international standards by 1998. An audit is being conducted to verify whether these 11 banks have complied with these obligations. In addition, 24 banks belonging to the second group were expected to accomplish the same transition by the end of 2000. Further consolidation is expected as many remaining banks will have been unable to comply with the increased minimum capital requirement of KZT 1 billion.
In 2002 the bank system continues to become stronger: high rates of increase characterize such indicators, as cumulative actives of banks, population contributions to banks. In the conditions of proceeding growth of resource base and increase in terms of involved resources for banks crediting of real sector of economy remains the most priority kind of operations. Positive economy for development the proceeding tendency of growth of a share and long-term credits in total amount of credits to economy is. High rates the insurance market that substantially to a measure was promoted by realization of the government program of development of insurance in Republic Kazakhstan for 2000-2002 also developed.
In 2004 Kazakhstan the first of the states CIS has received investment ratings from the best rating agencies recognized as the world community. So, on May, 20th the international rating agency Standard and Poor's has raised a sovereign rating of Kazakhstan under bonds in foreign currency with «ВВ +» to "VVV-". In october, 27th the same year the international rating agency Fitch Ratings has raised a long-term rating in foreign currency of Republic Kazakhstan with «ВВ +» to "VVV-". The short-term rating in foreign currency has been raised with "In" to «F-3», and a long-term rating in national currency - with "VVV-" to «ВВВ». The forecast of long-term ratings – "Stable".
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- ... of foreign investments. In the section "Favorable investment climate" a decision on the accelerated development of the stock market ... sectors of the financial market) and at the same time stable. Thus, Kazakhstan has all the necessary ...
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