Emma Goldman was an anarchist,
propagandist and most of all a feminist. She was born in Kovno,
Lithuania. She moved with her family to St. Petersburg, Russia
(1882), where she worked in a glove factory and absorbed the
prevailing radical-revolutionary ideas.
She emigrated to
America (1885), worked in a Rochester, N.Y., garment factory, and was
briefly married to a fellow worker. Angered by the execution of those
connected with the Haymarket bombing in Chicago (1886), she began to
identify with anarchists; she moved to New York City, became a
disciple of Johann Most, and became intimately involved with the
anarchist Alexander Berkman, whom she also assisted in planning his
failed assassination of Henry Frick (1892).
She was jailed
in New York City (1893) for allegedly inciting the unemployed “to
riot” and “take bread.” Upon her release, she took up nursing.
She studied briefly in Vienna (where she attended lectures by Freud).
Then in 1896
began working as a nurse and midwife in the American urban slums, she
began her lecture tours during which she gained even her enemies’
respect for her sharp intelligence.
President McKinley was assassinated in 1901, she was jailed for two
weeks without any evidence linking her to the deed. With Berkman out
of prison in 1906, he and Goldman founded and edited the anarchist
monthly Mother Earth (1906–17).
With her new
lover, Ben Reitman, (who also became her tour manager); she continued
to draw crowds and the law with her radical speeches. Because of her
speeches and her outspoken ways, she ended up spending two weeks in
jail in 1916 for disseminating birth control information.
Then in 1917 she
and Berkman were arrested for aiding draft resisters opposed to the
U.S. entering the World War. They were sentenced to two years
imprisonment. Upon their release in 1919, they were deported to the
disillusioned with the Bolshevik government, they left and moved
about Europe and Canada, finally settling in France; there she
finished her autobiography, Living My Life (1931), a powerful
testament. This book which was two volumes; covers her life
thoroughly through her departure from Soviet Russia in 1921 but
unfortunately devotes comparatively little space to her activities
during the 1920s.
She was allowed
to return to the U.S.A. in 1934, but only for a three-month lecture
tour. With Berkman’s death in 1936, she gave the last of her
remarkable energies to one more cause; The antifascists and the foes
of Franco in the Spanish Civil War.
She died in
exile in Canada in 1940.
In closing to
summarize what Emma Goldman was fighting for and acting as an early
advocate for; she fought for free speech, birth control, women’s
equality and independence, union organization and the eight hour work
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