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ЛИНГВОГУМАНИТАРНЫЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЯ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«МИНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

ЗВУКОБУКВЕННЫЕ СООТВЕТСТВИЯ

В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Практикум

Минск, 2008

Pronunciation and Spelling in English

Self-study and classroom use

СОСТАВИТЕЛИ: Гуринович Е. А., преподаватель практической фонетики;

Кучерчук Ю. В., преподаватель практической фонетики.

Практикум предназначен для учащихся лингвогуманитарного колледжа.

Данные материалы включают теоретические сведения о звукобуквенных соответствиях в английском языке, упражнения для совершенствования навыков чтения, а также материалы для чтения и заучивания наизусть. Материалы могут быть использованы как для аудиторной, так и самостоятельной работы учащихся.

Рассмотрено и одобрено на заседании ПЦК практической фонетики.

Протокол № 3 от 14 октября 2008 года.



  1. The Syllable. The Principles of Syllable Division

The nature of the syllable

Syllable formation in English is based on the phonological opposition vowel-consonant. Vowels are usually syllabic while consonants are not with the exceptions of [l], [m], [n], which become syllabic in final position preceded by a consonant or between two final consonants: bottle [|bɒtl], bottom [|bɒtm], button [|bʌtn].

A syllable is a speech unit which consists of a sound or a group of sounds one of which is heard more prominent than the others. This sound is the peak or the nucleus of the syllable and is called syllabic (vowels and sonorants are usually syllabic).

The English language has developed the closed type of a syllable as the fundamental one while in Russian it is the open type that forms the basis of syllable formation.

The other aspect of this component is syllable division. There is a problem of syllable division in case of intervocalic consonants and their clusters, like in such words as city, extra, standing and others.

Let us consider the word extra. There are two syllables but where should the boundary between them fall?

  1. [e-kstrə]. It is unlike that people would opt for a division between [e] and [kstrə] because there are no words in English which begin with consonant sequence [kstr].

  2. Similarly, a division between [ekstr] and [ə] would be unnatural.

  3. [ek-strə], [eks-trə], [ekst-rə] are possible. People usually prefer either of the first two options here, but there is no obvious way of deciding between them.

In some cases we may take into account the morphemic structure of words. For example, standing consists of two syllables; on phonemic grounds [|stæn-dIŋ], on grammatical grounds [|stænd-Iŋ].

Syllable division rules for simple words and parts

of compound words

Vowel

Intersyllabic sounds

Boundary

Examples

Notes

I. Short stressed

a) single consonant

within the consonant

[le ən]

[ m]

b) consonant cluster

between the consonants

[ek1|s2|t3|rə]

[wın|dəυ]

[rıŋ|kl]

In case of intervocalic clusters we use the distributional criterion: the combination of consonants belongs to the following syllable, if such combinations are typical of English.

II. Short unstressed, long, diphthong

a) single consonant

before the consonant

[melə|dı]

[k:|nə]

[ leı|bl]

b) consonant cluster

maximally close to the vowel

[ə|dres]

[ık|spektıd]

[fα:|stə]

[peı|trən]

! The so-called thriphthongs in English are disyllabic combinations, because they contain two vowel phonemes: [ faI |ə].

Ex. 1.1 ( , track 1)

How many syllables?

One word in each set has a different number of syllables from the others. Decide which it is, then check with the recording.

Example:

lengths

if

table

on

1

destiny

chocolate

computer

afterwards

2

stopped

smashed

wanted

tried

3

Leicester

Lester

Stratford

Manchester

4

altogether

avocado

banana

Argentina

5

rhythm

chasm

through

thorough

Ex. 1.2 ( , track 1)

What stress pattern?

One word in each set has a different stress pattern from the others. Which is it? Define the type of the stressed word. Check with the recording.

Example:

picture ○

nature ○

capture ○

mature ○

1

politics

dynamic

musician

historic

2

create

supply

prostate

dictate

3

teacher

refer

eager

offer

4

edit

debit

submit

credit

5

Angela

Therese

spaghetti

banana

Ex.1.3 Transcribe and divide into syllables.

Determine where the syllable boundary lies

1.

goodness

5.

about

9.

Saturday

2.

hotter

6.

lazy

10.

export

3.

village

7.

family

11.

hourly

4.

cotton

8.

admission

12.

mathematics

Ex. 1.4 Transcribe the following words, divide them into syllables and explain the rule

1.

ninety

6.

sentence

2.

middle

7.

vowel

3.

imitate

8.

cinema

4.

teacher

9.

expensive

5.

advertise

10.

commission

Ex. 1.5 Divide the words into syllables and explain the rule in each line:

1) Ready, pocket, mother, coffee, city;

2) Bottle, couple, cattle, mitten, middle;

3) Breakfast, hedgehog, doctor, country, fifty;

4) Farmer, herself, sleepy, ninety, gloomy;

5) Extreme, abrupt, include, nasty, attract;

6) Fire, towel, vowel, lower, goer.

  1. The Primary and the Secondary Meaning of Letters

In English one letter can denote a few different sounds (polysemantic letters). That’s why there are the primary and the secondary sound meanings of them. The primary meaning of a letter is the sound which this letter:

  1. denotes in the alphabet: a – [eI], e – [i:]. E.g. bake, be;

  2. doesn’t correspond to the alphabetical letter: a – [æ]. e.g. cat;

  3. approximates the alphabetical letter: f[f], y – [aI].

The secondary meaning of a letter is the one which differs from its primary alphabetical meaning and depends on the consonants preceding or following this letter. E.g. a – [ a:] - staff, [o ] – wander, [ɔ:] – war.

The sound formation of the English language distinguishes long and short vowels. According to this peculiarity in English each stressed vowel can have two meanings: alphabetical (long) and short.

READING OF VOWELS IN STRESSED SYLLABLES

Letter

Primary meaning

Secondary meaning

long

short

Vowel + r

Vowel +re

a

Kate

cat

car

hare

e

he, Pete

hen, help

her

here

i\y

I, Mike, mine

sit, gym

bird, Byrd

hire, tyre

o

no, stone

not

for

more

u

use

but

turn

cure



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