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Martin Luther King Essay, Research Paper

One of the world?s best known advocates of non-violent social change strategies, Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK), synthesized ideals drawn from many different cultural traditions. Recent studies of him emphasize the extent to which his ideals were rooted in African-American religious traditions which were then shaped by his education. The image of a social activist and leader was the result of extensive formal education, strong personal values and licit ethics. This excellence in leadership can be traced to his character which is shaped by his moral values and personality. We look at MLK and these traits to reveal the rationalization of his rise to transracial leadership in our society.

Through studying the life and example of Martin Luther King, Jr., we learn that his moral values of integrity, love, truth, fairness, caring, non-violence, achievement and peace were what motivated him. King is not great because he is well known, he is great because he served as the cause of peace and justice for all humans. King is remembered for his humanity, leadership and his love of his fellow man regardless of skin color. This presence of strong moral values developed King?s character which enabled him to become one of the most influential leaders of our time.

Integrity is a central value in a leader?s character and it is through integrity that King had vision of the truth. The truth that one day this nation would live up to the creed, ?all men are created equal?. No man contributed more to the great progress of blacks during the 1950?s and 1960?s than Martin Luther King, Jr. He was brought up believing ?one man can make a difference?, and this is just what he did. Integrity has a large effect on what we think, say and do, it is through King?s thoughts and actions that enabled so many people to have trust and faith in him. Through King?s integrity he believed that America, the most powerful and richest nation in the world will lead the way to a revolution of values. This revolution will change the way society views itself, shifting from a ?thing-orientated? society to a ?person-orientated? society. When this occurs, King believed that racism will be capable of being conquered and this nation will be ?Free at last.?

King?s unconditional love for all humans was another value that strongly influenced his character and allowed him to have such excellent leadership ability. King described his meaning of love in one of his many speeches, ?A Time to Break Silence?:

? When I speak of love I am not speaking of some sentimental and

weak response. I am speaking of that force which all of the great

religions have seen as the supreme unifying principle of life. Love

is somehow the key that unlocks the door which leads to ultimate

reality.?

King has been considered an extremist which he was not sure how to deal with at first. After careful consideration he believed that if he were to be called an extremist for love, it could only be taken as a compliment and he came to the realization that the world was in dire need for more extremists. King did not want to be remembered after his death by his Nobel Peace Prize or his many other awards, he wanted people to say ?…that Martin Luther King, Jr., tried to love somebody…And I want you to say that I tried to love and save humanity?. Even when his own life and the life of his family was threatened, King did not react with hatred or violence, he found more strength and courage and told his fellow men, ?I want you to love your enemies. Be good to them. Love them and let them know you love them.? Therefore, King?s love for the human race led him to focus his ministry and speeches in obedience to Jesus Christ, who loved his enemies so fully that he died for them.

King?s ability to speak the truth is another value that made him such an influential leader. This ability is one reason why King was asked to be the leader of so many important protest marches and sit-ins. His mother was aware of King?s ability to speak the truth very early in his life, ?He drew people to him from the very first moment by his eloquence, his sincerity, and his moral stature?. King?s followers believed that he would speak nothing but the truth but in King?s famous ?Letter from Birmingham Jail?, he could only hope that what he had written will be seen as the truth:

?If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and

indicates an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me.

If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my

having a patience that allows me to settle for anything less than

brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me.?

King also believed that all people should be treated with equality and fairness and this became the basis for the Civil Rights Movement of which King was the leader of. This fairness is one value that allowed King?s followers to have so much respect for him, for some, he was more than a man, ?The young people just envisioned a new hope and a new day, and the old folks saw in him a black Jesus. They used to love to call him ?My Boy? or ?My Son?. They worshipped him?. King?s followers felt this way about him because they had never before been treated with such fairness, they had never had anything to equal this in their whole lifetime. He lifted them so high that they could not help but think that he was an act sent to them from God.

It is obvious that King?s character was strongly influenced by his caring and compassion for all human beings, regardless of skin color. King?s ability to show how he cared for his fellow man was evident in the way he was able to get deeply into the hearts of people through his famous speeches. King cared so much for his people that during 1963 he traveled about 275 000 miles and made more than 350 speeches in his efforts to reach his fellow men. It is through his caring and inner strength that King has made himself ?the unchallenged voice of the Negro people – and the disquieting conscience of the whites?.

King?s fight for justice was perhaps the most significant values that made him one of the most influential leaders of all time. He believed that one day justice will prevail for blacks as is seen in most famous speech of all time, the speech, ? I Have a Dream?:

?I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert

state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be

transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.?

King wanted to see justice prevail and he and many of his follower felt that it did in the signing of the 1964 and 1968 Civil Rights Act. Blacks now had many rights that they were previously refused, they now had the right to vote, access public accommodations, and racial discrimination was prohibited in the sale or rental of housing. With this King was one step closer to seeing that this nation can live up to the creed, ?all men are created equal?. King believed in his fight for justice so strongly that he described himself as follows:

?If you want to say that I was a drum major,

say that I was a drum major for justice;

say that I was a drum major for peace;

I was a drum major for righteousness?.

Non-violence is a very important moral value that shapes the character of any great leader. This is by far one of the strongest attributes which enabled him to reach his plateau of leadership excellence. King was an advocate of non-violent means of achieving civil rights reform. He had a very clear and concise idea of what he wanted to achieve and how to achieve it. Non-violence was the major driving force behind his plans. King was very much aware of the power of non-violent tactics in an attempt for social changes. President Kennedy gave respect to the movement and reacted to protests in Birmingham by agreeing to submit broad civil rights legislation to Congress, which eventually passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

King had modeled his philosophy on that of Mohandas Gandhi, who is one of the worlds greatest advocates of non-violent resistance. During his meeting with Gandhi he became more convinced than ever that non-violent resistance was the most powerful weapon for oppressed people in their struggle for freedom. He voiced his beliefs of non-violent resistance in his ?I have a dream?, speech which has become, for good reason, one of the worlds most memorable speeches of our time. He said:

The true meaning of a man is not how he behaves in moments of

comfort and convince, but how he stands at times of controversy

and challenge.

We must not allow our creative protests to degenerate into physical

violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of

meeting physical force with soul force.

The dynamics of this moral value of non-violence are very evident in the make up of Martin Luther King Jr.?s character. This is why this tactic of active non-violence (sit-ins, protest marches) had put civil-right squarely on the national agenda, and this is also why Martin Luther King Jr., the American civil-rights leader is known for his leadership excellence.

King?s lifetime achievement is one for the record books. This moral value (achievement) is one that is key to any great leader. It shapes the character of the individual, and the drive for achievement maps out the plan of success and leadership excellence. His remarkable achievement started in school. He was not motivated by fame and fortune, but by the personal satisfaction knowing that he was making a positive impact in the life of others. He graduated with a bachelor of divinity degree, as valedictorian and student body president. He then went on to be awarded a doctorate from Boston University. He was not a person that was content with what he had accomplished, he was motivated for a higher level of achievement. This is when he became a prominent American civil-rights leader. King?s effectiveness in achieving his objectives was limited not merely by divisions among blacks, however, but not also by the increasing resistance he encountered from national political leaders. At the time of his death he did not achieve everything that he set forth to do, but he did reach legendary status for his achievements in his quest for equal justice for everyone in America.

Any individual in history who has been set apart by their leadership excellence all have in common the value of peace. Mohandas Gandhi, who is one of our greatest leaders of our time has peace and non-violence as his greatest attributes. King was one of Gandhi?s greatest admirers. King learned of the importance of peace as an important value for leadership qualities from Gandhi. This is shown through his insistence of non-violent tactics in the struggle for equal justice. The values of non-violence and peace are very much intertwined . Both are key elements of King?s character and actions. His actions are a result of his values. He values peace and non-violence, and therefore that is how he does things. He believes in peace and non-violence and therefore he organizes peaceful marches, and sit-ins. Most leaders do not achieve the level of leadership excellence as king did, because of their lack in understanding of the forcefulness of peaceful resistance. His methods forced many states to adopt changes and integration. The president of the United States of America, also had to take notice because of the respectability King put into the Civil-Rights movement. For his actions on behalf of peace he received the highest and most recognizable award in the world for his work and achievements. In December of 1964 King received the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway for his outstanding work in the American Civil Rights movement.

Every great leader have most of the same qualities and values that make up their character. Martin Luther King was well known for his excellence in leadership. There is always some parts of a leader?s character that prevent them from achieving a level of leadership excellence. They usually consist of such character flaws such as greed, egoism, and illusion. King?s absence of these qualities are the reason why he became well known for his leadership excellence.

King was brought up very modestly. His parents taught him the value of the church and to use it as an instrument for improving the lives of African-Americans. Throughout Martin?s triumphant mission for social change he never let greed come into his mind. He had his mind clearly set on his purpose, which was to promote equal justice for everyone and never strayed from his mission. With the church being such a predominant fixture in his life, it kept him devoted to serving fellow man. There is no doubt that King could have profited substantially more off his popularity and achievements, but he chose to give back to the movement that he believed in.

King was a true leader in the fact that he never let his egoism impair his judgment and decisions. He was never one to be overly concerned with trying to impress others, rather he was only concerned with the well-being of his fellow man. He said:

The quality, not the longevity, of one?s life is what is important.

The statement epitomizes his character in the fact that he was only concerned with helping others, and contributing positively to society. He believed that no matter what job it was that you did, you should do it and do it to the best of your abilities.

Illusion, like egoism and greed was not a part of the character of King. He set his mind clearly on his objective and stayed faithful to it. He was never lead on by illusion and it did not interfere with his judgments. Martin Luther King Jr., is a man to admire for his true leadership excellence and also for the content of his character.

The virtuous character of, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. has been shown by the high moral values he lived by. Other aspects of the excellence of his character and leadership are evident in the following: his personality, goals, attitudes, perception, self-esteem, habits, managerial style, identity, vision, choice, and behaviour.

Personality develops early in all of us. MLK King (was called MLK by his childhood friends) was shaped by being black in a white supremacist society. At a young age he was determined to change things. In his academic endeavours and desires he appeared to be a very serious person, but he enjoyed socialising. He had friends [some white], danced, and played sports.

Dr. King was a charismatic leader. He spoke with eloquence, authority, and assurance. With his natural leadership qualities it is only fitting that he soon found himself in that role. His leadership was not limited to speaking from a podium, i.e. taxied people during bus boycotts in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955-56.

*censored*From childhood he was grounded in the idea of a personal God. He believed in the dignity and worth of all humans. During his post-graduate years, he became most influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and his idea of non-violent resistance. Due to differences in situations, it was uncertain whether the same tactics would work, i.e. in India, the majority was in support of Gandhi where in the United States the black population is a minority. Personality develops and grows with us but Dr. King never lost focus of his goals.

One of his childhood goals was realised as he began his ministry and public speaking; that was to speak with eloquence and , ? big words?. He preached a social gospel to fulfil his dream of a just society for all:

?…the church must incessantly raise its voice in prophetic warning against the social evils in all the institutions of the day. The church must not try to be a state or an economic order, but remaining in its own role as conserver and voice of the state and the economic order. In all its judgements it must avoid even the appearance of being one organisation competing for power and prestige among other organisations. Its peculiar power lies not in self-seeking but in searching for truth and justice and peace for all, in the spirit of Jesus Christ. For this, too, is part of being ?first? by being ?slave

of all?.

Dr. King knew from personal experience and looking around at others that confidence

needed to replace fear and pride replace humiliation. In order to do this there had to be desegregation in the southern states. Whites and coloured people should be able to sit anywhere on public transit on a first come first served basis. Blacks should not have to give up their seats to whites. White and coloured signs should come down from public washrooms and fountains. Blacks should be served at all lunch counters and restaurants and hotels. Other goals included programs for the poor and not just blacks but all, and work for the unemployed.

All these gaols were to be obtained without violence, by peaceful civil disobedience. He told his followers to meet violence with non-violence. He did not wish to have people hurt on either side of the issue. His hope was to redeem the white majority from the evil of their ways. ?We Shall Overcome?- and they did overcome! There was desegregation in many areas in most southern states. Poverty was reduced and employment increased.

Dr. King had attitudes that guided him. He believed in human dignity, individuality, and community. What was his attitude toward his fellow man? He believed in agape, a love for all men. He believed people are basically good and will change from their evil ways once they are shown and taught the difference. MLK was courteous. As a child he would,? turn the other cheek?, showing even then a preference for non-violence. In all that he did, Martin Luther King, Jr. was not afraid. He did not fear physical harm or what men might say.

But injustice angered him. ?Justice too long delayed is justice denied?. An unjust law is contrary to God?s moral law. Therefore, it is not wrong to stand opposed to such laws, or to find oneself in prison for disobeying immoral laws. His aim was not to break the law, but to change it. Dr. King was disappointed that most white churches did not support the cause of their black brothers and sisters. Although, statements by national agencies of various denominations denounced segregation, the local congregations often supported the status quo.

In regard to perception, Dr. King was able to see the powerful combination of Christian love and non-violence. He knew the importance of religion to the black southern community. He was able to accept and adopt wise counsel, i.e. in choosing to be a preacher. From the pulpit he could reach the people.

MLK was well aware of Negro stereotypes and in college made pains to avoid such labels being attached to him. As he grew in understanding of humanity he knew to speak to individuals on a one to one basis to get a truer picture of them and the situation.

There were times when Dr. King found himself between two extremes. On one hand, those who had given up ever seeing a change in the way things were. They would accept the status quo and live without the respect all humans deserve. On the other hand, were militant groups, i.e. Black Power Movement, who believed in violence to achieve their goals.

Martin Luther viewed moderate white people as a stumbling block as they were anxious for order but not necessarily justice. Peace to whites often meant suppression of black people. Dr. King could see the, ?big picture?, of the political climate. He realised the effectiveness of white brutality to the black cause as the American public was shocked and horrified as they viewed on television. Then they and the government were moved to action.

Dr. King?s self-esteem is surrounded by love, growth, character, values, achievement, meaning, and self-actualisation. From childhood he knew his value as a human being made in the image of God. He believed in, ?loving oneself, loving one?s neighbour, and loving God?. Still there was the tension of being black and knowing he was equal while being treated as a lesser human being.

Martin Luther had doubts like anyone. He held up under amazing odds. How long could his people continue to suffer on the marches? But he was not moved by lies, i.e. attempts to separate he and his wife. His faith was in God and did not fear what men could do to him.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., developed habits that contributed to his success. From a very young age he read and was more advanced intellectually. He finished highschool by age 15. As mentioned, church was important. He was deliberate and patient in his endeavours, disciplined and hard working. Dr. King was well-read in the history of his people as well as in great literature, philosophies, etc. He developed his oratory skills.

He lead many marches and went willingly to jail to further freedom for his people. Being organised, he became the first president of the , Southern Christian Leadership Conference [SCLC] and remained president until his death.

Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK) was a born leader but more importantly an excellent manager of his people. This is observed as early as 1955 when blacks launched a boycott against the city of Montgomery by refusing to obey the city?s rules mandating segregation on buses. The group elected MLK as president of the newly formed Montgomery Improvement Association. He was able to motivate, transform and adapt to situations with his followers and lead them to success with the Montgomery Improvement Association. This was not to be his last position as a leader of many people. He also founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and was their president in 1957. The list of his accomplishments go on and on and an entire paper can be written on these and we will only make reference to these to give evidence of his leadership, character and ethics. There are certain traits that make MLK a great leader which are directly consanguine to his managerial skills. It is difficult to be a great leader without great managerial skills. Most prominent in MLK?s Life as a leader is his way with words. His speech?s and sermons were the fuel for the smoldering coals to ignite the people that followed him and his beliefs. He spoke creatively and cleverly and at the same time was diplomatic and tactful which is evident in his speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom. His actions demonstrated his dependability, desire to influence others, persistency and high energy level. All of which were eminent in his book Stride Towards Freedom which he published in 1958 and ambitious action in touring India to increase his knowledge of Gandhian non-violent philosophies. Although portrayed as the pre-eminent black spokesperson, MLK did not mobilize mass protest activity during the first few years after the Montgomery boycott. He moved cautiously launching a wave of sit-in protests during the winter and spring of 1960 showing that he was knowledgeable of the task as a whole, was well organized and willing to assume responsibility.

MLK?s identity was known all to well in North America and is attributed to his many books, speeches and writings. During the year following the March, MLK renown grew as he became Time magazines Man of the Year and then in 1964 was the recipient of the Nobel Peace prize. Despite all the fame and accolades MLK faced many challenges to his leadership. However MLK?s effectiveness in achieving his objectives was not limited and after achieving his objectives in Albany, MLK recognized the need to organize his protests in order to better represent his people and to strengthen their organization. Much of his identity was formed by his father. At a very early age MLK resented religious emotionalism and often questioned literal interpretations of scripture, but he always greatly admired black social gospel proponents such as his father who always viewed the church as an instrument for improving the lives of African American. President of Morehouse College Benjamin Mays further shaped his identity by influencing him to become a minister and serve society. His continued skepticism led him towards theological studies at Crozer Theological Seminar in Chester Pennsyvania and at Boston University where he received his doctorate in systematic theology in 1955. All of which were commensurate to his identity that is most evident in his famous ?I have a dream? oration. Even after his death MLK, his identity and his beliefs have remained a controversial symbol of the African American civil rights struggle, revered by many for his sacrifice on behalf of non violence and condemned by others for his militancy and revolutionary views.

A crucial period in MLK?s deliberations about his career came during the summer of 1947, wed he led religious services for his fellow student workers at a tobacco farm in Simsbury, Connecticut. Even before leaving Atlanta he had received his preaching license. After several weeks of deliberation, he telephoned his mother to tell her of his intentions to become a minister. His initial inclination to become a doctor or a lawyer was overwhelmed by an underlying urge to serve god and humanity. He had made this decision through a culmination of experiences. ?My call to the ministry was neither dramatic nor spectacular,? and he later wrote in his application to seminary:

It came neither by some miraculous vision nor by some blinding light experience on the road of life. Moreover, it was a response to an inner urge that gradually came upon me. This urge expressed itself in a desire to serve God and humanity, and the feeling that my talent and commitment could best be expressed through the ministry?.I came to see that God had placed a responsibility upon my shoulders and the more I tried to escape it the more frustreted I would become.

This statement best exemplifies the vision of MLK not of what he planned to do in specifics but his life as a whole which led to those accomplishments and his successful yet short lived career.

One of MLK?s most important as well as most difficult to proclaim is his ability to choose. Choice is very difficult when one direction can lead you down while the other can take to the top of the mountain. We feel that it was the responsibility that he felt to his people that drove his choices. Other influences included his religious beliefs that helped to guide his decision making. All of his choices are very decisive and assertive to benefit and further his ideals and vision. He also made sure that he was making the right choice and once his mind was made up he let his self-confidence take over. This can be seen with his choice to join the clergy. After many years of disputing the views of his father, a minister, he had a vision that the best way to serve the people was to become a pastor. In order to make choices we feel that being able to adapt to situations is very important and this is a trait that is very prominent in MLK?s life. It is difficult to find specific situations where MLK made good and bad choices but any time a choice was made all possibilities were always taken into effect and were made on behalf of the African American race in the fight against segregation.

Given the academic environment in which he attended graduate school, it is not surprising that MLK?s behavior did not explicitly draw upon the insights of African-American religion. Yet, his graduate school writings understated the degree to which his behavior had been shaped by African-American religion and its writings. MLK?s mental development reflected his lifelong tendency to incorporate the best elements of each alternative in his behavior. Most of his behavior could be witness in and through his sermons. Such evidence can be seen as early as 1954 when he gave his ?Rediscovering Lost Values? sermon. He said:

?The real problem is that through our scientific genius we?ve failed made of the world a neighborhood, but through our moral and spiritual genius we?ve failed to make it a brotherhood.?

His behavior was in line with his values and beliefs and was presented in accordance with the task at hand which at that time was the importance of morals and ethical relativism in our society.

Bibliography

Ansbro, John J., Martin Luther King, Jr., The Making of a Mind, 1982, Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY.

Lowery, Linda, Martin Luther King Day 1987 Carolrhoda Book – Minneapolis, Minnesota

McPhee, Penelope; Schulke, Flip, King Remembered 1986 W.W. Norton& Company, Inc.

Washington, James M. , ?I Have a Dream? , 1992, Harper San Francisco

Claybourne Carson, King?s Biography, 1996, Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project

Paul E. Johnson, Martin Luther King jr. and the African-American Social Gospel, 1996, http://www.leland.stanford.edu

Albert, Peter J. We Shall Overcome, Da Capo Press, New York, 1993.

Archer, Jules. They Had a Dream, Penguin Books, New York, 1993.

Schulke, Flip. King Remembered, Pocket Books, New York, 1986.

Washington, James M. I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches that

Changed the World by Martin Luther King, Harper, San Fransisco,

1992.

Washington, James M. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Peaceful Warrior, Pocket

Books, New York, 1968.


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